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SUBJONCTIVUL

SUBJONCTIVUL

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Published by: daciana74 on Feb 14, 2012
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SUBJONCTIVUL
Modul subjonctiv prezinta actiunea ca posibila cand actiunea este proiectata in viitor, sau ca virtuala,nerealizata, deci ireala, cand actiunea trebuia sa aiba loc in trecut.Eg. I wish she were here. (as dori sa fie aici, dar nu este)A. TimpuriI. SUBJONCTIVUL SINTETIC I (Forma veche a subjonctivului)- infinitiv scurt (fara –s la pers III sg)Este intrebuintat pentru a exprima o stare de lucruri presupusa sau inexistenta, dar realizabila. Exprima o presupunere, o conditie, o invoiala, un scop, o temere, o sugestie, o cerere, un ordin, o urare, o dorinta:Eg. Let him demonstrate the apparatus if it work so efficiently. (cond)I doubt the touring company be here tomorrow. (indoiala)It was suggested that the new technical process be applied. (sugestie)Orders were given that the new machinery be installed (order)Long live he! (urare) (=Sa traiasca multi ani!)Acest subjonctiv se mentine in engleza britanica in urmatoarele situatii:a) in stilul oficial si in general in limba formala scrisaeg. The judge demands that the prisoner be brought it.I move to an appeal be made to the parties concerned. (Presupun sa se faca apel la partile in cauza) b) in poezie si in proza literara:eg. Though she be so young, I will confide in her.c) in unele expresii fixe ca:
if need be
(=daca este nevoie)
be it so/ so it be
(=asa sa fie)
be that as it may
(= oricum ar fi)
 far it be from to…
(= departe de mine gandul de a ….)
be it said without meaning to be rude
(=fie spus fara a vrea sa fiu nepoliticos)
come what may
(= fie ce-o fi, orice s-ar intampla)
a year come Monday
(= se implineste luni un an…)
Suffice to say …
(= este de ajuns sa spun)d) in izbucniri injurioase, imprecatii, proteste vehemente
Curse you! Drat the fellow! ( 
Fire-ai blestemat sa fii!/Fire-ai sa fii de individ)
 Expenses be hanged!
(Da-le incolo de cheltuieli!)
That be hanged for a tale!
(Ce nascocire ciudata!)Se traduce prin conjunctiv, conditional sau printr-un indicativ cu nuanta reticenta.II. SUBJONCTIVUL SINTETIC II (Subjonctivul trecut)- are o singura forma pentru toate persoanele atat la singular cat si la plural:I / you/ he/ she/ it /we/ they
were
- exprima o stare sau actiune ireala, realizabila sau nu, care are loc in prezent sau in viitor.Eg.
 If she were her, she would win the championship.
!!! Cand actiunea corespunde realitatii se intrebuinteaza indicativul:eg.
 If she is here, she will win the championship.
In vorbirea curenta exista tendinta de a-l inlocui pe
were
cu
was
la pers I si III sg .
 If he
was/ were
ill, I would send for the doctor.
Forma de subjonctiv trecut poate fi folosita si la aspectul continuu. (were + part –ing)Eg.
 I wish he were revising for the exam. ( As dori sa repete pentru examen)
Limbajul cult pastreaza distinctia dintre indicativ trecut
was (
care exprima o actiune reala), si
were
(care serefera la o actiune ireala).Eg.
 If she was in her office, I didn’t see her. ( 
reala) 
 If she were in her office, I should see her.
(ireala) 
 If I /he were you
1
 
If he was you. *
Este folosit in subordonate pentru a exprima o actioune contrara realitatii.a)in SB dupa it’s (high) time:
 It’s high time you went to bed.
 b)In CD dupa verbul wish:
 I wish you were telling the truth.
c)CM comparative:
She talked as if she were ill.
d)CT:
 If I saw him, I would give him your message.
e)CV:
 Even though he were ill, he would not miss school.
Se traduce cu conjunctivul prezent sau conditionalul prezent.III. SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC I / SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT-are aceasta forma la toate persoanele:
Trecutul perfect
 I / you/ he/ she/ it/ we/ they
had been
 
Exprima o stare sau actiune contrara realitatii. Ea poate fi :a) anterioara actiunii sau starii exprrimate prin vb din propoziatia principala.
 He wishes he had not been so careless of his duty.
 b) simultana cu un verb la un timp perfect din principala:
 If he had been in the workshop, he would have helped you.
 B: INTREBUINTARE SI INTELES 
Este intrebuintat dupa:
if, as if, as though, (al)though, that, so that, lest
(= ca sa nu),
for fear, before, ere
(inainte) ,
however
(oricat de),
whatever, till, until, provided, but
(decat, daca nu, sa nu),
except, save/saving
(daca nu),
supposing, unless, whether
(fie)Si dupa verbele:
 suppose, wish
Exprima:a) o comparatie ireala sau o preferinta ireala (dupa
as if, as though, rather, than (if) , than (that)
 eg.
Mother treats me as if I were a little girl.
 b) o concesie dupa
even if, even though, however, whatever
 So it be! ( 
asa sa fie!)
 Come what may
Fie ce-o fi!)
 Even though he had come earlier, he would have missed her. Even if it were so, this is no easy matter.
c) o conditie ireala, realizabila sau nu (in propozitii conditionale)
 If your wife were with us, she would see to everything. If you had met them, you would have liked them.
d) o dorinta, in propozitii optative:
 I wish I were a student again.
e) o exclamatie, o formula retorica:
Oh! That it were posssible. (oh, daca ar fi posibil)
f)imprecatii, proteste vehemente sau nu:
 Drat that fellow
! (La naiba cu el!)
Confound him!
(duca-se la naiba!)
 Along it all!
(Las-o incolo)
Go on with you!
(Las-o balta! Cum am sa cred asa ceva)g)o indoiala:
 I doubt if he be in. (arhaic)/ I don’t think he is in.
h)o presupunere
: if this be true, he is a clever man.
i)O propunere, sugestie, indemn, cerere, ordin
 It was suggested that she give a specimen lesson.Someone come here and sing!
 j) un scop (dupa:
that, in order than, so that, lest)
 He put in an application that Mary be accepted to evening class.
(A facut cererea ca Maria sa fie primita lacursul seral)2
 
 j)o temere (dupa
lest, for fear, to be afraid, to fear)
She feared lest she be caught in the storm. ( 
Ii era teama sa n-o prinda furtuna
 )
l) o urare:
 Long be she happy!
(Sa fie multi ani fericita!)Se mai intrebuinteaza:m) dupa constructii impersonale introduse prin
it
: it is necessary/ essential, it is probable / likely / possible;it is a pity
 It is necessary that he be told his colleagues’ opinion.
It is high time
– este urmat de subjonctiv prezent.
 It is high time you were in bed, John.
n) in constructii idiomatice
had better, had rather, would rather, would sooner
You had better speak to him.My son had rather play than work.
SUBJONCTIVUL VERBELOR AUXILIARE, MODALE CU DOUA FORME
 Prezent (modal prezent+ infinitive prezent)
can/ may/ shall/ will call 
Trecut (modal trecut +inf prezent)
could / might/ should / would call 
Conditional si subjonctiv prezent si perfectPrezent (modal trecut+infinitive prezent)
could/ might/ should / would call 
Perfect (modal trecut +infinitive perfect)
could/ might / should/ would have called 
Observatii:1.Modalele au aceeasi forma la indicative trecut, subjonctiv present si conditional present2.Modalele au timpul present si trecut, deci diferenta de forma apare la modale.Conditionalul si subjonctivul avand present si perfect, diferenta apare la perfectul verbului lexical.Subjonctivul present:
should
(ar trebui) ,
would
(as vrea) +infinitivul present –callSubjonctivul perfect:
should
(ar trebui) ,
would
(as vrea) +infinitival perfect – have called
C. CONSTRUCTII CARE INLOCUIESC SUBJONCTIVULLET +infinitivul scurt
(cu exceptia persoanei a II-a)- exprima o propunere, un indemn, ordin indirect, o presupunere, o concesie
 Let me speak now!
(propunere)
 Let us go home!
(indemn)
MAY + infinitivul scurt
se foloseste pentru a exprima:a)O dorinta sau o urare:
May i never see you ill again!
(de nu te-as mai vedea niciodata bolnav!)
May you live long!
 b)O temere sau o speranta, de cele mai multe ori dupa conjunctiva
that
exprimata sau subinteleasa:
  I hope (that) you may be right.
c)Un scop:
 I have come so that you may tell me the news.
d)
O concesie
(dupa
 
however, whatever 
sau absenta ei):
 However much i like you, i can’t overlook your mistakes.
e)Dupa constructiile:
it is possible, it is probable, it is likelyMIGHT
are aceeasi functie ca si
MAY
; este insa folosit in frazele in care verbul din propozitia principala seafla la trecut.
She wished she might never know illness again.
(Ar vrea sa nu mai stie niciodata ce e boala)
Might+infinitival perfect
exprima o actiune nerealizata.:3

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