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International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012
Content-Based Publish/Subscribe with MotionDetection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Mrs. S. Vasundra, Prof. A. Damodaram, Dr. B. Sathyanarayana,Associate professor, Professor of CSE and Professor & Chairman BOS,Department of CSE, Director SCDE, Department of CS & T,JNTUACEA, JNTUHCE, S.K. University,ANANTAPUR. HYDERABAD. ANANTAPUR.
A
BSTRACT
 Publish-subscribe middleware designing poses severalchallenges in Mobility. The most evident is that thetopology of the system, usually assumed static by existingsystems, now becomes dynamic and undergoescontinuous reconfiguration as the mobile nodes move.Depending on the mobility scenario, this may havedifferent impact. At the other extreme, mobile ad hocnetworks (MANETs) define the most radical mobilityscenario, where no assumption is made about thedynamic topology of the systems and the networkinginfrastructure itself is assumed to be mobile. The impactof mobility in this case is disruptive and no longerlimited to the clients dwelling at the outer edge of thesystem, since the intermediate nodes in-charge of routingand other network functions are now assumed to bemobile. Moreover, most applicative scenarios forMANETs actually blur the distinction between endnodes and intermediate ones, assuming that all thenetwork nodes possess the functionality required tocooperate to enable routing. As a consequence,networking protocols must be rethought from theground up to accommodate the new deploymentassumptions, as witnessed by the appearance of entirelynew routing protocols. The publish-subscribe modelholds the potential to become the most fundamentalimportance in mobile computing, but only if thetechnology supporting it embodies the mechanisms andalgorithms necessary to cope with the dynamicity of thisenvironment. We evaluate the Improved ODMRP withmotion detection (IOMD) for content-basedpublish/subscribe system in mobile Ad-Hoc networksand show preliminary experiment results. We extendedODMRP (On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol)using aggregated summaries of content-basedsubscriptions in Bloom filters expression for the dynamicconstruction of an event dissemination structure.
ODMRP’s mesh topology gives extra reliability. We
describe experimental results including comparison withregular ODMRP and mobility simulation.Keywords: Publish/Subscribe, Multicasting, ODMRP,Bloom Filter, Mobility, Motion Detection, Ad HocNetwork1. INTRODUCTION
Networking technologies and products now enable a highdegree of connectivity across a large number of computers,applications, and users. In these environments, it isimportant to provide asynchronous communication for theclass of distributed systems that operate in a loosely coupledand autonomous fashion, and which require operationalimmunity from network failures. Various middlewareproducts that are characterized as messaging have filled thisrequirement, message oriented middleware (MOM),message queuing, or publish-subscribe. In recent years, thepublish-subscribe paradigm has emerged as a promising andeffective way to tackle many of these issues. The implicitand asynchronous communication paradigm thatcharacterizes publish-subscribe supports a high degree of decoupling among the components of a distributedapplication. In principle, it is possible to add or remove onecomponent without affecting the others. Only the dispatcher,the element in-charge of collecting subscriptions and routingmessages, needs to be aware of the change. Clearly, thisform of decoupling would is desirable in a scenario wherethe set of available components undergo continuous changeas in the mobile one. Nevertheless, much of the potential of the publish - subscribe model still remains to be unleashedby publish- subscribe systems. Indeed, many of the availabledistributed publish-subscribe middleware exploit adispatching network arranged in a tree overlay for increasedscalability, but whose design usually does not tolerate anyform of topological reconfiguration. Therefore,paradoxically, these systems cannot be exploited preciselyin those application scenarios where decoupling would bemost beneficial.Content-based routing (CBR) provides a powerful andflexible foundation for distributed applications. Itscommunication model, based on implicit addressing, fostersdecoupling among the communicating components,therefore meeting the needs of many dynamic scenarios,including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). As MobileAd-Hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic collection of 
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International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012
nodes with rapidly changing multi-hop topologies that arecomposed of wireless links. The combination of mobiledevices and Ad-Hoc networks allows the creation of highlydynamic, self-organizing, mobile peer-to-peer systems. Insuch systems, mobile hosts continuously change theirphysical location and establish peering relationships witheach other based on proximity. Asynchronouscommunication is essential to support such MANETenvironments. There have been efforts to create efficientmulticast communication for MANETs. Maintaining groupmembership and efficient delivery of the packets to allmembers is challenging. To achieve improved one-to-manycommunication systems in MANET environments, event-based middleware must be introduced. Distributedapplications exploiting publish-subscribe middleware areorganized as a collection of autonomous components. Theclients interact by publishing messages and by subscribingto the classes of messages they are interested in. The corecomponent of the middleware, the dispatcher, is responsiblefor collecting subscriptions and forwarding messages frompublishers to subscribers.This scheme results in a high degree of decoupling amongthe communicating parties. These ideas have been recentlypopularized by wealth of systems, each interpreting thepublish-subscribe paradigm in a different way. A first pointof differentiation is the expressiveness of the subscriptionlanguage, drawing a line between subject-based and content-based systems. In the first case, subscriptions contain onlythe name of a class of messages usually called subject,channel, or topic chosen among a set of pre-defined classes.Instead, in content-based systems the selection of a messageis determined entirely by the client, which uses expressions(often called filters) that allow sophisticated matching on themessage content. Several tree-based routing strategies canbe found in the literature, with the most basic ones shownand compared. The simplest approach is messageforwarding in which a broker to all the others along thedispatching tree forwards a published message. Instead,subscriptions are never propagated beyond the brokerreceiving them. This broker stores these subscriptions in asubscription table that are used to determine which clients,should receive incoming messages. Message forwardingmay generate high overhead since messages are sent to allbrokers regardless of the interest of the clients attached tothem. An alternative strategy, called subscriptionforwarding, limits this overhead by spreading knowledgeabout subscriptions throughout the system. When a brokerreceives a subscription from one of its clients, it not onlystores the associated filter in the subscription table as inmessage forwarding, but also forwards it to all theneighboring brokers. During this propagation, eachdispatcher behaves as a subscriber with respect to itsneighbors. Consequently, each of them records the filterassociated with the subscription in its own subscription tableand re-forwards it to all its neighboring dispatchers exceptthe one that sent it. This process effectively sets up routesfor messages through the reverse path followed bysubscriptions.Our interest lies in examining the impact of applicationspecific mobility models on multicast routing performance[11]. For our study we use a set of mobility models thatrepresent a range of application-based mobility patterns. Weexamine the performance of publish/subscribe in ODMRPand Improved ODMRP with motion detection (IOMD)under mobility models. Our results show that mobilitypatterns do affect multicast routing performance. We alsoinvestigate the special case of high density and high trafficrate.
 2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORKS
One way of achieving multicast communication in MANETis to implement it on top of the MAC layer, thereforetackling mobility and link disruptions directly at the network layer. Alternatively, one can rely on some underlyingmultihop unicast mechanism providing point-to-pointcommunication and let this deal with mobility andreconfigurations. We notice how the second approachcreates a layer of indirection hiding many aspects related toreconfiguration. Instead, we want to retain control of mobility, to tailor the broker tree reconfiguration to ourneeds. Inevitably, this implies removing any intermediatelayer between the topology maintenance mechanism and thenetwork itself. The messaging system in MANET should beself organized, because the topology of a mobile P2P systemhas to constantly adjust itself by discovering newcommunication links and also needs to be fullydecentralized due to the lack of a central access point.In many mobility models, each node moves independentlyfrom the others. Often, the speed and direction are chosenrandomly, as with Brownian motion [9], Random Gauss-Markov [18], Random Waypoint [15], and RandomDirection [12]. Several models restrict the direction inwhich nodes may move. For example, Hu and Johnson use aColumn model, based on a design suggested by Sanchez [3],in which nodes move with randomly selected velocitieswithin a column formation [9]. Tian et al. explore graph-based mobility, designed to model the constraints of real-world locations, such as trains connecting cities. In thismodel, vertices in a graph represent possible destinationsand edges represent paths on which nodes can travel.Likewise, Davies uses a City Section Mobility model, whereseveral parts of a city are modeled as streets with their speedlimits [4]. When a node has to move from one point toanother, it selects the shortest path possible with the givenstreet constraints. Recent work by Jardosh et al. incorporatesthe use of obstacles in defining mobility patterns [10]. Inthis work, obstacles are placed in a field and then paths tothe obstacles (i.e. doorways into buildings) are computedusing a Voronoi Diagram. Nodes choose a destination
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randomly and then move along the designated paths using ashortest-path computation. Group-based mobility modelsintroduce dependency among the mobile nodes. Johanssonet al. propose a Disaster Area scenario, in which individualgroups consisting of rescue agents intercommunicate witheach other [14]. Hu and Johnson use a pursue model, againsuggested by Sanchez, in which nodes follow a group leaderby trying to intercept it [9]. Hong et al. develop a ReferencePoint Group Mobility model, which is a generalization of the pursue model [7]. In this model, each node belongs to a
group with a logical center, and a node’s velocity is defined
as the sum of the velocity of the center its own randomvelocity. By adjusting the movement of the logical center,this model can be used to produce various real-life group-based scenarios, such as disaster management, a conventioncenter, etc.Finally, several mobility frameworks have been developedto characterize a wide variety of movements. The MobilityVector model [8] uses a pair of vectors to model smoothchanges in direction and speed. They show how variousmobility scenarios can be generated from this basic model,including location-dependent movement, targeting, andgroup mobility.Topic-based addressing is an abstraction of numericnetwork addressing schemes. With the content-basedsubscriptions used in SIENA and Gryphon, deliverydepends only on message content, extending the capabilityof event notification with more expressive subscriptionfilters [1]. Common topic-based systems arrange topics inhierarchies, but a topic cannot have several super topics.Type-based subscription provides a natural approach to thisif the language offers multiple sub-typing, thus avoidingexplicit message classification through topics. This workswell with typed languages, but it is complex to deploy thisdegree of serialization of objects. Moreover, mobileapplications may not have the concept of objects or typing.Thus, the combination of hierarchical topics and high speedcontent filtering could be a more flexible approach formobile applications. There are efforts to build content-basedsubscription with distributed hash tables by automaticallyorganizing the content into several topics. Research is alsoongoing to structure complex content-based data models[12] and reflection-based filters [7]. XRoute [17] proposesan approach for content based routing of XML data in mesh-based overlay networks.We are currently working on efficient distribution of eventmatching tasks over the network and brokers by establishing
the concept of ”approximate matching”. The dynamic
construction of event dissemination trees to route eventsfrom publishers to all interested subscribers is the mostchallenging task to support content-based subscription indistributed environments. JEDI proposes variations forevent routing among its networked event servers, includingthe flooding and match-first approaches. With thehierarchical approach, event servers are organized in a tree.This approach may lead to a large routing table at the treeroot. Routing strategies in SIENA use two classes of algorithm: advertisement forwarding and subscriptionforwarding. They prune the propagation tree by propagatingonly those paths that have not been covered by previousrequests.
 
2.1 Publish/Subscribe System
Currently available publish-subscribe middleware differalong several dimensions among which the most relevantare the expressiveness of the subscription language, thearchitecture of the dispatcher, and the forwarding strategy[8],[16]. The expressiveness of the subscription languagedraws a line between subject-based systems, wheresubscriptions identify only classes of messages belonging toa given channel or subject, and content-based ones, wheresubscriptions contain expressions (called predicates) thatallow sophisticated matching on the message content. Weguess that the typical scenarios of pervasive computing,where a potential large number of components need tointeract very flexibly, justify the latter choice with respect tothe more conservative, less expressive, and less scalablesolution of subject-based filtering. To apply content basedpublish/subscribe in large scale networks, most advancedmiddleware adopt a distributed dispatcher, where a set of brokers are interconnected in an overlay dispatchingnetwork and cooperatively route subscriptions and messagessent by components are attached to them. Middleware thatexploit a distributed dispatcher can be further classifiedaccording to the interconnection topology of brokers and thestrategy exploited for message dissemination. The simplestapproach is message forwarding in which brokers areconnected to form a un-rooted tree. Publishers sendmessages to their associated broker, which forward them toall the other brokers by following the tree topology.Moreover, each broker keeps track of the subscriptionscoming from the software components directly attached to itin a local subscription table, which are used to determine thecomponents, that should receive incoming messages. Thissolution inevitably results in high overhead as all messagesare sent to all brokers, regardless if an attached componenthas subscribed.
 
2.2 Multicast
Multicasting has traditionally been used as transport for
messaging systems. However today’s multicast schemes are
not scalable to support large groups. Thus, severalApplication-Level Multicast Routing Protocols (ALMRPs)have been designed. Most ALMRPs use tree based routingfor logarithmic scaling with respect to receiver numbers: asthe node connectivity changes, the tree structure changesaccordingly. Narada [13] and many subsequent designs can
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