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01 Administrative Theory

01 Administrative Theory

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PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
:
MEANING
AND
SCOPE
1.0
dbjectives
1.1
Introduction1.2 Specificity of Administration
1.3
Public Administration Defined1.4Scope and
Dornriin
of Public Adniinistration
1.3.1
The
Domain
1.4.2
Thr
Scope
1.5 Character of the Discipline
1.6
Distinction between Public and Business
Admirlistration
1.7
Let Us
Sum
Up
1.8
Key
Worcis
1.9
Some Useful Bonks
1.10
Answers to Check Your
Progress
Exercises
P,O
OBJECTIVES
-
-
After you have read this unit,
you
should be
able
to
:
define
Puhlic
Administration and state its characteristics
0
explitin
the character of 
the.discipline
discuss the domain and scope of Public Administration; anddistinguish between Business and Public Administration.
1.1
.
INTRODUCTION
You are our undergraduate learner. We appreciate your keen interest in learning PublicAdministration. We are sure you are anxious
to
learn
all
that is given
iu
this Unit. Thisfirst unit in the course
Administrgtive
'Theory,
aimsoat
introducing
he
discipline of PublicAdministration to you.
It
explains the meaning and
characteristics
of 
the
disciplineof Public Administration. Public Administration,
as
an aspect of governmentalactivity is very old. It is as old as
human I~istory.
In European languages, the
term
Publie
Administration began to creep in during the seventeenth century to separate the absolutemonarch's administration of public affairs from
his
nianagement of his private household.It was a
peiiiiu
......
~~~?:rrch
133
separaled
from the state and the government wassuperimposed
on
all
other societal institutions within a definite territory. In
every.saciery
there are some activities like maintenance of law and order and
defence
which have to beundertaken in public interest. Public Administration as
a
system of 
organisation
is
mainlyconcerned with the
perfolmance
of 
th&e
activities. Political decision makers set
the
goalsfor the political system.
It
is the business of Public Administration
lo
work 
fur
the
realisation of these goals.
At
the present stage of 
 man's
evolution,
Ptlhlic rIJmint$tr:111ri11
has proved to
be
indispensable.
%he
scope of Public Administration has expanded
with
the
I
rise of the modem administrative state. Its growing importance in
thc
conduct of humanaffairs
is
evident in the birth of 
numerous
public laws, growth
clf
public profession,accumulation of huge
anns
and increasing coverage of 
laxes
and
pi~blic
expenditure.
The
domain of state functions
is
almost
all-cotqkellensive
in socialist countries. Even thecapitalist states have expanded their functions under
compulrrions
of welfareconsiderations.
The
post-colonial
'third
-
world' countries have embarked upon
Develop,ment
Administration to speedily bring about stale sponsored
stwio-econat~kc
reconstmction.
 
programmes,
establtshing
and revising organisation,
di~cting
and supervising employees,providing leadership, communicating and receiving ccmmunications, determining wor
mkthods
and
procedures,appraising
performance, exercising controls and other functionsperformed by government executives and
supervisors.
It is the action part of the government,
the means
by which the purposes and goals of the government are
realised.
Some well known definitions of Public Administration are:
4
"
Public Administration is detailed and systematic execution of public law. Every
particular
application of law isanact of administration
"
-
L.D.White.Public
Administration
is
"
the art and science of management applied to the affairs of the State
"
-
D.
Waldo.
4
"
By Public Administration is meant in common usage the activities of the executivebranches of the National, State and Local Governments''
-
H. Simon.
me
'Public' aspect of Public Administration gives the discipline a special character. It
can
.
be
looked
at formally to mean government'.
So,
Public Administration is governmentadministration, the
focus
being specifically on public bureaucracy. This is the
meaninp
commonly
used
in discussing Public Administration. Public
Administration,in
a
wider
sense,
has sought to expand its ambit by including any administration that has considerable impact.on the public. From this standpoint, a private electricity undertaking like the Calcutta ElectricSupply Corporation can
be
considered a fit subject of 
diwussion
under Public Administration.It
is,
however, in the first sense that Public
Administration
is usually considered.
-
1.4
SCOPE
 AND
DOMAIN
OF
PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
.
We
shau
now
Attempt
&
discuss
-
the scope of the discipline of Public Administration. Thescope can be studied under two heads:
1.4.1
The
Domain
Public Administration is the complex of governmental activities that are undertaken inpublic interest at
different
levels such
as.the
central, state or provincial (in a federal set
-
up)and local levels. The discipline of Public Administration aims at a systematic study of these activities. Government, as political authority, is the major regulator of