C H A P T E R 3 M A N A W H E N U A A N D K A I T I A K I T A K A
KÄITAHU KI OTAGONATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 2005
3MANAWHENUA AND KAITIAKITAKA
Naia te toa a Tarewai, kei aia anö tana Patu
There is an appropriate authority for everything
This chapter provides an overview of the history and location of thePapatipu Rünaka and whänau röpü groups of the Otago region.
The term manawhenua refers to those whänau and hapü with customary linkage and rights to a site,place and/or resource through the following tikaka:
Rights through conquest.
An inherited right.
An ancestral right proven because of discovery and subsequent naming of theland and resource.
Tüturu te noho
Rights of settlement, which are only valid if there is an established inter-generationalpermanence or ahi kä.
Exchange of land or resource for taoka (gift and or other resources).
The gifting of land and resource in traditional times, prior to European contact.
A right that can be established because an ancestor has asserted themselves overland or a resource.It is important to understand that the right of manawhenua is traceable and defined by traditionand whakapapa to particular customary rights that whänau and hapü have inherited through theabove tikaka.
3.2KAITIAKITAKA AND MAURI
Kaitiakitaka is derived from the word “kaitiaki” which includes guardianship, care and wise management.The term has received recognition in Section 7(a) of the Resource Management Act 1991 and isdefined in the Act as
“the exercise of guardianship by the tangata whenua of an area in accordance withtikanga Mäori in relation to natural and physical resources; and includes the ethic of stewardship”.
Mauri is imbued in all things and is a special power derived from the Supreme Being. At birth thetwo parts of body and wairua are joined together as one by the mauri. On death the mauri is nolonger able to bind these elements together and the physical and spiritual parts are separated. Theforest, waters, the life supported by them, together with natural phenomena such as the mist, windand rocks, possess a mauri or life force. The primary management principle for Mäori is the protectionof mauri or life-giving essence of an ecosystem from desecration.Mäori words such as kaitiakitaka, mauri, wairua and tikaka are expressive of customary conceptsthat are best understood in the context of the language and the culture they derive from. To reinterpretthese meanings into the English language by its very nature loses significant context and meaning.To absorb such words into legal frameworks and create definitions to suit the legislative norm isreductive and creates a simplistic explanation. The Käi Tahu understanding of kaitiakitaka is muchbroader then that defined in the RMA 1991.
3.2.1The KaitiakiTe Kaitiaki
Prior to 1840 and the implementation of the new colonial order, it can be reasonably said that manaand kaitiakitaka were often synonymous. Iwi collectively protected to the fullest extent their territoryand the resources in it, in concert with the affiliated hapü.The whänau, hapü, and iwi maintained and developed their tikaka for the wellbeing of the people.It was the kaitiaki duty to protect and sustain the resources so they remained for their grandchildren