areas and open space,
and it can be applied through ap-propriate land use and zoning regulations and developmentstandards.
Zoning helps local governments and planning agenciesregulate the use of land and land development. Traditional
each with their own standards for development; in contrast,performance zoning regulates development based upon theway each particular land use or type of development willaffect its surroundings.
A report by American Rivers, Natu-ral Resources Defense Council and Smart Growth Americasaid, For example,some communities have adoptedperformance zoning (a.k.a. cluster zoning or conser-vation zoning), which include (
) standards for openspace, development densities, narrower streets, impervioussurfaces, and other water-related considerations.
protect natural resources,
Las Vegans use more water per capita than most othersouthwestern cities, due largely to landscape irrigation.
-scapes, outdoor water usage could be cut by 40 percent.
Rainwater harvesting, an ancient practice that has existedfor thousands of years, could be used to
pro-vide water for landscaping and help with natural groundwa-ter recovery.
Las Vegas receives 4.19 inches of precipita-tion annually. Based on this amount, a 1,000 square-footroof could collect roughly 2,000 to 2,500 gallons of waterinto a storage unit annually.
(See Table 2.)Harvesting rainwater in desert cities like Las Vegas is fea-
city to require the practice when it passed an ordinancein October 2008 ordering that after June 1, 2010, all newcommercial developments must come equipped with arainwater harvesting system that can meet at least half of the landscaping water demands.
Property owners canbecome active water conservation participants in their com-munity by using rain barrels or other rainwater harvestingequipment.
The SNWA provides a few indoor water conservationprograms targeted at single- and multi-family residences, in-
Never-theless, the Las Vegas Valley has a higher indoor per capita
States, the Las Vegas Valley captures and recovers virtuallyevery drop of water used indoors.
However, as noted by
treating and delivering water is energy intensive.
rapid population growth, and were able to reduce theirwater usage and mitigate water shortages through differ-
outreach, plumbing, and landscaping programs.
Formal programs accompanied with incentives ought tobe developed and maintained by the SNWA, county andlocal agencies to reward and encourage water conservation.Incentives to cultivate participation can include subsidies
appliances, like washing machines, toilets and showerheads.Furthermore, plumbing codes could be updated to require
The Amount of Rainfall a 1,000Square-Foot Rooftop Could Harvest
MonthNormalPrecipitationin Las Vegas(inches)EstimatedGallons of WaterHarvested froma 1,000 Square-Foot Rooftop
0.54252.32 – 319.60
0.76355.11 – 449.81
0.44205.59 – 260.41
0.1570.09 – 88.78
0.1256.07 – 71.02
0.0732.71 – 41.43
0.40186.90 – 236.74
0.33154.19 – 195.31
0.25116.81 – 147.96
0.27126.16 – 159.80
0.36168.21 – 213.07
0.50233.63 – 295.93
Annual4.191957.78 – 2479.85
Formula based on Persyn, Russell A. et al. Rainwater
2011 at 3.