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(2011) BOYKOV, G. Reshaping Urban Space in the Ottoman Balkans (2010)

(2011) BOYKOV, G. Reshaping Urban Space in the Ottoman Balkans (2010)

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Published by: Grigor Boykov on Feb 16, 2012
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32
   C  e  n   t  r  e  s  a  n   d  p  e  r   i  p   h  e  r   i  e  s   i  n   O   t   t  o  m  a  n  a  r  c   h   i   t  e  c   t  u  r  e  :  r  e   d   i  s  c  o  v  e  r   i  n  g  a   B  a   l   k  a  n   h  e  r   i   t  a  g  e
The author discusses early Ottoman urban development strategies through architectural foundations, with special regard to what appears to be a model common to late medieval Anatolia and the Balkans, and a number of “Ot- tomanized” cities. This is demonstrated by a comparative study of urban transformation in three early Ottoman towns – Edirne, Plovdiv, and Skopje – with attention paid to the location and functions of communal mosques 

th 
and 15 
th 
centuries and found in all three cities. For Skopje’case he argues that we have before us an example of a “dynasty” of frontier gentry applying the same principles as 
   

osmaniziranim gradovima. Ovo je predstavljeno komparativnom studijom urbanih transformacija na primjeru tri 

 pokrovitelji u njihovoj uticajnoj sferi.
Grigor Boykov (Sofia)
Reshaping urban space in the OttomanBalkans: a study on the architecturaldevelopment of Edirne, Plovdiv, andSkopje (14th-15th centuries)Transformacija urbanog prostorana osmanskom Balkanu: studija oarhitektonskom razvoju Jedrena, Plovdivai Skoplja (od 14. do 15.vijeka)
 
33
   C  e  n   t  r   i   i  p  e  r   i   f  e  r   i   j   e  u  o  s  m  a  n  s   k  o   j   a  r   h   i   t  e   k   t  u  r   i  :  p  o  n  o  v  o  o   t   k  r   i  v  a  n   j   e   b  a   l   k  a  n  s   k  o  g  n  a  s   l   i   j   e
         đ
  a
 T
HE
M
ONGOL
 
INVASION
 
of Anatolia in the mid-

th
century undermined the centralized author-ity of the Seljuk sultans, replacing it with thatof the emerging local aristocratic elites, who ac-cumulated in their hands large landed propertiesand acted to a great extent as independent rul-ers. Scholars like Howard Crane or Ethel Sara Wolper have argued that the dramatic changes

th
and early 14
th
-

in patronage patterns, in which powerful local
emir 
s replaced the sultans as principal sponsorsof architecture.
1
Furthermore, the types of institutions supported changed: the local lords,

or caravanserais, focused their patronage on
medrese 
s, tombs, and – most notably – dervishlodges.
2
They sought to transform the hierarchy of city space and to modify the existing spatialorder through a conscious attempt to shift theurban core away from the Seljuk centre.
Theinstrument of this urban transformation wasthe patronage of dervish lodges built near city gates or market areas. They manifested the al-liance between the local rulers and the itiner-ant Anatolian dervishes, who had enormous
1 The research for this paper has been made possiblethanks to generous grants by the Andrew W. MellonFoundation and the Turkish Cultural Foundation.

 Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 

Ethel Sara.
 
in Medieval Anatolia.
University Park: Pennsylvania State University 

 Muqarnas,
 Vol. XII


alienated from the Sunni practices promoted by Seljuk central power.
4
 
edge between Christian and Muslim worlds,emerged as a symbiosis between frontier elite warriors, who embraced
 gaza 
as their leading ide-ology, the
ahi 
brotherhoods, and the wandering dervishes, who dominated the spiritual life of the Turcoman subjects under the leadership of 

the former Seljuk 
emir 
s or
bey 
s of the surround-

modus vivendi 
 withdifferent layers of the border society (including the local non-Muslim population), while try-ing to strengthen and legitimize their claim forlordship.
5

he began commissioning two distinctivetypes of buildings that were meant to embodthe symbols of ideology, power, and legitimacy of the new ruling dynasty. The newly conquered
4 Ibid., pp. 40-1.

in:
Ottoman civilization.

Between twoworlds: the construction of the Ottoman state.
Berkeley: University of 

blockade and subsequent conquest of the principal Bithynian cities,

in:


Belleten 

Iznik (Nicaea): through the eyes of travelers and as recorded in

 
,
 

Ottoman Bursa in travel accounts 
. Bloomington,

 
34
   C  e  n   t  r  e  s  a  n   d  p  e  r   i  p   h  e  r   i  e  s   i  n   O   t   t  o  m  a  n  a  r  c   h   i   t  e  c   t  u  r  e  :  r  e   d   i  s  c  o  v  e  r   i  n  g  a   B  a   l   k  a  n   h  e  r   i   t  a  g  e

the one hand, the appearance of a communalmosque, either a converted church or a new building, situated at a focal point of the city, andon the other by a complex centered around a T-shaped multifunctional
imaret/zaviye 
outside the walled part of the city.
7
  The T-shaped buildings, the form of whichis claimed by some scholars to architecturally derive from Central Anatolian dervish lodges
8
,combined in a single structure an elevated prayerhall in an either vaulted or domed
eyvan 
, a centralspace, and two to four side-rooms ( 
tabhane 
s) pro-
 
In contemporary sourcesthey are simultaneously referred to as
imaret 
and
zaviye 
. As a rule these buildings never stoodalone, but were part of complexes usually includ-ing a
medrese 
,
hamam 
, soup kitchen, and in many cases the tomb of the person who commis-sioned its construction. The exact functions of these buildings are still debated in the scholarly literature, but one could safely assert that thesebuildings were meant to provide shelter for im-

or Geyikli Baba), and to accommodate various wandering dervishes, important travellers, and warriors of the faith. Moreover, these complexesalways provided other important social servicessuch as providing food free of charge to the poor

development are Gabriel, Albert.
Une capitale turque Brousse-Brusa 
.


mimârîsinin ilk devri, 630-805 
1230-1402 
 
Katharina.
Das islamische Iznik
 

history 
,
 

Essays in honour of Aptullah Kuran,
 
8 Emir, Sedat.

2 vols. Izmir: Akademi Kitabevi,



pp. 75-122.

eyvan 

The mosque in early Ottoman architecture.
Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press,

zaviyeli cami 


 Vol.

identity and territorialization
.
 
Unpublished MA thesis, Middle East
 
subjects or travellers, and supported religiousschools which had provided the links to the
ulema 
. The T-shaped
imaret/zaviye 
s were, as a rule, built

-eval city, without any other system or regularity in planning Making use of the topography, thebuildings were organically integrated in the city’slandscape. In this respect the old capital Bursa,
 
-plexes, not only could be seen as emblematic, butalso the great number of T-shaped buildings and

10
Being a major focus of royal patronage the T-shaped
imaret/zaviye 
s became a key mechanism

-tate the growth of urban settlement. By extend-

dynasty to outlying areas, the rulers marked the

important strategic points, the T-shaped
imaret/zaviye 
s and their complexes were most probably 

for those coming in. Therefore they were in mostcases lavishly decorated and imposing structures.

constructed a clear message demonstrating thechange and highlighting the leadership of theirdynasty.
11
By examining the urban transformation of important Byzantine cities such as Bursa and

redesigning urban space repeatedly followed by the sultans and their dignitaries. A new Muslimcore emerged at a focal point where a big sultanicmosque was instituted. Simultaneously, or soon
10 A comprehensive overview of sultanic complexes in Bursa is foundin Gabriel,
Une capitale turque 

Ahistory of the Ottoman architecture.

2
,

11

The Ottoman city and its parts: urban structure and social order 
. Eds. Irene Bierman et al. New Rochelle: Aristide D. Caratzas,

in:
Turkish Studies Association Bulletin 
, Vol. XX, No. 1, pp. 40-55;

 Muqarnas 

Constantinopolis/Istanbul: cultural encounters,imperial vision, and the construction of the Ottoman capital 
. University Park:


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