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The Futures of the City Region

The Futures of the City Region

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Published by EKAI Center

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Published by: EKAI Center on Feb 16, 2012
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07/22/2014

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02 Jberu`ry 5305 
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@oobss Abt`ins< Jrbb @oobss 
Suenisgbr
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Idjmrf` Nta Ubhistbrba id Bdhn`da `da X`nbs Ubhistbrba Dufebr< 0385921 Ubhistbrba mjjiob< Fmrtifbr Gmusb, ?8-10 Fmrtifbr _trbbt, Nmdamd X0Q ?LG, RK
Ubhimd`n _tuaibs
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Qgb Juturbs mj tgb Oity Ubhimd
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 _ogmmn mj tgb Euint Bdvirmdfbdt,Gbrimt-X`tt Rdivbrsity, Baideurhg, RK
Qm oitb tgis @rtionb
 Dbuf`d, Fiog`bn `da Gunn, @dhbn`(5339) 'Qgb Juturbs mj tgb Oity Ubhimd', Ubhimd`n _tuaibs, 1?< :, 888‑ 878
Qm nidk tm tgis @rtionb AMI
03.0373/33?1?13393?3?8200
RUN
Qgb Ubhimd`n _tuaibs @ssmoi`timd (gttp<//www.rbhimd`n-stuaibs-`ssmo.`o.uk) g`s niobdsba tgb Q`ynmr &Jr`dois Hrmup tm puenisg tgis `rtionb `da mtgbr f`tbri`ns. Qm lmid tgb Ubhimd`n _tuaibs @ssmoi`timdpnb`sb visit gttp<//www.rbhimd`n-stuaibs-`ssmo.`o.uk/fbfebrs/ebdbjits.`sp.Zibw tgb Ubhimd`n _tuaibs @ssmoi`timd Aison`ifbr (gttp<//www.rbhimd`n-stuaibs-`ssmo.`o.uk/aison`ifbr.`sp)Junn tbrfs `da omdaitimds mj usb< gttp<//rs`.idjmrf`wmrna.omf/tbrfs-`da-omdaitimds-mj-`oobss.pajQgis `rtionb f`yeb usba jmr rbsb`rog, tb`ogidh `da priv`tb stuay purpmsbs. @dy suest`dti`n mr systbf`tiorbprmauotimd, rb-aistrieutimd, rb-sbnnidh, nm`d mr sue-niobdsidh, systbf`tio suppny mr aistrieutimd id`dy jmrf tm `dymdb is bxprbssny jmreiaabd.Qgb puenisgbr ambs dmt hivb `dy w`rr`dty bxprbss mr ifpniba mr f`kb `dy rbprbsbdt`timd tg`t tgb omdtbdtswinn eb omfpnbtb mr `oour`tb mr up tm a`tb. Qgb `oour`oy mj `dy idstruotimds, jmrfun`b `da aruh amsbssgmuna eb idabpbdabdtny vbrijiba witg prif`ry smurobs. Qgb puenisgbr sg`nn dmt eb ni`enb jmr `dy nmss,`otimds, on`ifs, prmobbaidhs, abf`da mr omsts mr a`f`hbs wg`tsmbvbr mr gmwsmbvbr o`usba `risidh airbotnymr idairbotny id omddbotimd witg mr `risidh mut mj tgb usb mj tgis f`tbri`n.
 
Qgb Juturbs mj tgb Oity Ubhimd
FIOG@BN DBRF@D
`da @DHBN@ GRNN†
Rre`d Sn`ddidh, Qbx`s @&F Rdivbrsity, Omnnbhb _t`timd, QW 8871?-?0?8, R_@. Bf`in< dbuf`dCt`fu.bau
_ogmmn mj tgb Euint Bdvirmdfbdt, Gbrimt-X`tt Rdivbrsity, Baideurhg BG01 1@_, RK. Bf`in< `.a.gunnCgw.`o.uk
(Ubobivba id rbvisba jmrf Motmebr 5337)
QGB @_OBDA@DOB MJ QGB OIQY UBHIMD
Rre`dsp`ob is sm rbpnbtbwitg absoriptimds tg`t S`damr`’s l`r omuna dmt omdt`id tgbf. Nikb id tgb Hrbbk fytg mj S`damr`, tgb pnbtgmr` mj ure`d sp`ti`n absoriptimds is`nfmst ` oursb md tgmsb wgm `ttbfpt omfprbgbdsivbudabrst`daidh. Qma`y, tgb abe`tbs surrmudaidh rbhimd`nqubstimds `rb fmrb omfpnbx tg`d bvbr id f`dy aifbd-simds. Qgby `rb funtiaisoipnid`ry `da funti-so`n`r, `datgb pgbdmfbd` udabr `d`nysis `rb tgbfsbnvbs fmrbomfpnbx, `s bviabdoba ey `d `euda`dob mj bfpirio`n`da tgbmrbtio`n rbsb`rog id tgb n`st abo`abs.D`timd`n pn`ddbrs `rb `dtioip`tidh tgb hrmwtg mj omddbotba dbtwmrks mj fbtrmpmnit`d `rb`s mr ‗fbh`rb-himds’ id @fbrio` 5323 (A
BX@U
 `da B
S_QBID
, 5338)`da id Burmpb tgb rb`og mj ure`d `rb`s is omdobivba `ssprb`aidh jrmf oity obdtrbs tm tgb rbfmtb omudtrysiab`ormss ‗oity-rbhimd’tbrritmribs (U
@ZBQ\
, 5333). Rre`d-iz`timd, id tgis sbdsb, is emtg `d bfpirio`n `da `dif`hidba
/
aisoursivb qubstimd. Qgb jmous mj tgis spboi`nissub is wgbtgbr `da gmw tgb ‗oity rbhimd’ omdstitutbs `dbw abp`rturb id ure`diz`timd, `da ij sm wg`t `rb tgbkby bnbfbdts mj tg`t aijjbrbdob. Omdtrieutmrs g`vbebbd idvitba tm situ`tb `da abe`tb tgbsb qubstimdstgrmuhg tgb `d`nysis mj smoi`n `da bomdmfio omdaitimds`da
/
mr tgb hmvbrd`dob d`rr`tivbs id tgb sp`ti`n omdtbxtswitg wgiog tgby `rb j`fini`r.Qgisidtrmauotimdprbsbdts`erm`aswbbpmj `o`abfioprbmooup`timds witg tgb oity rbhimd `da tgbd sbnbots `sbt mj tgbsb abe`tbs, wgiog nidk tgbsb tm tgb smoim-sp`ti`n idtbr`otimds `da tgb `rtionbs tg`t jmnnmw.
0
Xitgidtgis erm`a p`nbttb, twm tgbfbs idtbrwb`vb tgrmuhg tgbidtrmauotimd. Jirst is tgb smoim-sp`ti`n omdstruots `datgbir rbn`timdsgip tm bfpirio`n bviabdob mj og`dhb idtgb pgysio`n `da judotimd`n `spbots mj ure`d jmrf._bomda is wg`t tgby fb`d jmr tgb sp`ti`n so`nbs mj hmvbrd`dob. Qgis n`ttbr tgbfb is fmrb onmsbny tiba tmtbrritmri`nny e`sba udabrst`daidhs mj idtbrvbdtimd `datgb og`dhidh sbt mj pmnitio`n omdobrds. Qgb `rtionbs idtgis issub, tgbrbjmrb, rbpny tm tgb oritios mj ‗dbw rbhimd-`nisf’, wgm on`if tg`t it rbiffbs tgb rbhimd mvbr mtgbr hbmhr`pgio`n so`nbs `da dbhnbots tgb bjjbots mj pmwbr `da pmnitios `da wiabr prmobssbs mj udbvbd abvbnmpfbdt(N
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, 5338).@s riog `da suhhbstivb `s omdtbfpmr`ry jmrfun`timds`rb, sm wbrb tgmsb mj S`rk `da tgb Ogio`hm _ogmmn, mr Xbebr, _iffbn, Ogrist`nnbr, `da Nmsog id tgbir a`y`da ebymda. B`rnibr hbdbr`timds nifitba tgbir jmous md‗tgb oity’. Ybt tgb oity, `da ure`disf, tgb stuay mj oitibs, g`vb og`dhba r`aio`nny sidob.
5
Fbh`oitibs, fbh`-nmpmnisbs, fbh`-oity rbhimds, fbh`-rbhimds, fbh`pmni-t`d rbhimds, `da pmnyobdtrio fbtrmpmnisbs `nn rbprbsbdtjuda`fbdt`nny dbw omdstruots `da smfbtifbs omdſtiot-idh udabrst`daidhs mj tgb p`ttbrds mj ure`dity. (Rdnbssspboiffba, tgb hbdbr`n tbrf ‗oity rbhimd’ is `amptba tmo`pturb tgb erm`a sbdsb mj ure`d pgbdmfbd` `t fbtrm-pmnit`d `da n`rhbr so`nbs). Jmnnmwidh p`rt mj tgb spboiff-o`timds mj N
@DH
 `da A
G@Z@NB
 (5332), it omdt`ids twmmr fmrb fbtrmpmnisbs id rbn`tivbny onmsb hbmhr`pgioprmxifity `da judotimd`n omddbotivity witg ` pmpu-n`timd mj tbd finnimd mr fmrb. Qgbsb tbrfs `rb omdtbstba`da suelbot tm abe`tb.Qgb `if gbrb is tm stbp e`ok `da udabrst`da fmrbabbpny gmw mdb tgidks `emut tgb abe`tbs tgbfsbnvbs.Qgb p`pbrs id tgis spboi`n issub rbſtbot ` r`dhb mj ourrbdtabe`tbs rbh`raidh rbprbsbdt`timds mj tgb oity rbhimd.Qgis idtrmauotimd rbvibws smfb mj tgmsb abe`tbs, `damjjbrs jr`fbwmrks jmr idtbrprbt`timd. Qgbsb jr`fbwmrksnidk tgb funti-so`n`r `da funti-tbfpmr`n qu`nity mj oityrbhimds `da tgbir hmvbrd`dob, `da sbbks tm spboijy tgbfutu`nny idtbr`otivb eriahb ebtwbbd tgbf `s ‗sp`ti`n‟ idstitutimd`n ismfmrpgisf’. Qgis n`st tbrf rbpn`obs `aijjusb sp`ob `da smoibty omfeidba ey suhhbstidh ` fir-rmridh tg`t t`kbs pn`ob ebtwbbd ure`d sp`ti`n omdstruots`da tgb dbtwmrkba hmvbrd`dob omdstruots tg`t purpmrttm f`d`hb tgbf.Qgis spboi`n issub’s `utgmrs sydtgbsizb sbvbr`n tgbmr-btio`n str`das `s wbnn `s bx`fidb tgb bfpirio`n bviabdobmj pgysio`n tr`dsjmrf`timds id tgb fmrpgmnmhy mj tgboity rbhimd id tgb 50st obdtury. Qgis spboi`n issub, idtgis rbspbot, bxp`das md mur idtbnnbotu`n hr`sp mj tgbtgbmrbtio`n abe`tbs tgrmuhg ‗pr`otio`n kdmwidh’,ar`widh md bviabdob jrmf Burmpb, tgb Rditba _t`tbs,@ustr`n`si`, `da ebymda.Xg`t `rb tgb omhditivb omdstruots tg`t jr`fb tgbabe`tb= Xb bfeba tgb oritio`n tgidkidh mj tgb omdtrieu-tmrs tm tgis spboi`nissub id tgb ‗sp`ti`nity’ mj oity rbhimds, `omdobpt lust ebhiddidh tm eb bxpnmrba ey tmpmhr`pgio`n
Ubhimd`n _tuaibs
, Zmn. 1?.:, pp. 888‟878, Luny 5339
33?1-?131 pridt/0?:3-3290 mdnidb/39/3:3888-00
#
5339 Ubhimd`n _tuaibs @ssmoi`timd AMI< 03.0373/33?1?13393?3?8200gttp<//www.rbhimd`n-stuaibs-`ssmo.`o.uk
 A m w dn m `a ba  @ t < 03 <?9 02  J be r u ` r y 5305
 
hbmhr`pgbrs (@
FID
, 5335, p. ?7:). Id tgis rbspbot wbg`vb abniebr`tbny ar`wd md oritio`n tgidkbrs jrmfmtgbr smoim-sp`ti`n aisoipnidbs id `aaitimd tm bomdmfio`da rbn`timd`n hbmhr`pgbrs. _m amidh ar`ws tmhbtgbr v`rimus udabrst`daidhs mj aijjbrbdt kidas mj prmobssbsid mrabr tm bx`fidb gmw tgbsb ‗pn`y mut’ id v`rimusomfeid`timds mj nmo`n `da hnme`n omdtbxts.Xginb sp`ob ambs dmt pbrfit tgb udp`okidh mj `nn mj tgb abe`tbs, bxbfpn`ry tgbfbs winn eb iabdtiffba `da tgbomdsbqubdobs pmidtba mut `emut tgb aijjbrbdt w`ys mj tgidkidh g`vb jmr tgbmry `da `d`nysis. Id tgis, tgbfbt`-`d`nytio fbtgma mj ‗jr`fb rbſtbotimd’ `av`dobaey _
OGM¨ D
 `da U
BID
 (0991) is jmnnmwba. Qgbrb tgby`ppniba ` rbſtbxivb `pprm`og tm udabrst`daidh tgbe`sbs (‗jr`fbs’) tg`t udabrnib wg`t tgby d`fba ‗idtr`ot-`enb pmnioy prmenbfs’.Qgis t`sk is udabrt`kbd id tgb jmnnmwidh jmur sbotimds. @ eribj mvbrvibw mj tgb sp`ti`n abffditimds mj oity rbhimds `da tgb bfpirio`nny e`sba tgbmribs mj sp`ti`n jmrf is ffrst mjjbrba. Qgbd tgb aisoussimd f`rksmut gmw tgb oity rbhimd g`s ebbd if`hidba id tgbrbobdt p`st id tgb jmrf mj nidk`hbs, hr`aibdts, `da o`rtm-hr`pgio `da hbmhr`pgio rbprbsbdt`timds. Qgb tgira `dajmurtg sbotimds pmsb tgb qubstimd mj wgbtgbr tgb dbwomdstruots mj fbh`-rbhimds `da oity rbhimds winn gbnptm bst`enisg dbw idstitutimd`n struoturbs `t tgbsb so`nbs.Qgb pmssieinitibs `da og`nnbdhbs `da tgb omdsbqubdobsjmr idstitutimd`n absihd `rb nmmkba `t ebjmrb, ffd`nny,sbttidh mut `d `hbda` jmr juturb rbsb`rog.
_S@QI@N ABJIDIQIMD_ MJ OIQY UBHIMD_
Xgbd oity rbhimds wbrb n`st aisoussba id
 Ubhimd`n _tuaibs
, tgb jmous w`s md tgb sp`ti`n aistrieutimd mj tr`ab, omffutidh, `da o`pit`n ſtmws ebtwbbd tgbiddbr omrb `da tgb surrmudaidh gidtbrn`da (S
@UU
,5332). Qgb ifpbtus jmr tgis spboi`n issub’s bxpnmr`timdrbspmdas id p`rt tm tgb mppmrtudity iabdtiffba ey_
RALIO
 (0995). Gb idaio`tba tg`t tgb fb`ds tm hr`sptgb dbw omfpnbxitibs mj tgb ‗033 finb oity`rbn`okidh. Qgis spboi`n issub sbbks tm udabrst`da tgbv`rimus fb`didhs `tt`ogba tm oity rbhimd id tgb 50stobdtury, `nn mj wgiog rbomhdizb tgb funtiaifbdsimd`nity`da idtbr`otimd`n d`turb mj tgb omdstruotimd mj sp`ob(@
FID
, 5335). @s A`via G`rvby idaio`tbs, ‗Guf`debidhs g`vb typio`nny prmauoba ` dbstba gibr`rogy mj sp`ti`n so`nbs witgid wgiog tm mrh`dizb tgbir `otivitibs`da udabrst`da tgbir wmrna(G
@UZBY
, 5333, p. 82).Qgb omdtrieutmrs `ttbst tm tgb j`ot tg`t tgb oity rbhimdmooupibs ` prmfidbdt pn`ob id tg`t gibr`rogy, bvbd `sit is nidkba idtrio`tbny tm mtgbr so`nbs.Qgis spboi`n issub is tifbny id tg`t tgb RditbaKidhamf’s Bomdmfio `da _moi`n Ubsb`rog OmudoinOitibs rbsb`rog prmhr`ffb, tgb Burmpb`d Omffissimd’sSMNYDBQ prmhr`ffb, `da tgb R_-e`sba @fbrio`5323 iditi`tivb rbdbw nmdh-st`daidh `rhufbdts tg`tpmnioy-f`kidh muhgt tm eb mrh`dizba `rmuda fmrbbxp`dsivbny abnifitba oity rbhimds (F
@UZID
 bt `n.
,533:; E
ROK
 bt `n.
, 5332; G
@NN
 `da S
@ID
, 533:;O
@UEMDBNN
 `da Y
@UM
, 5332). Id tgb Rditba _t`tbstgbrb is ` rbdbwba `ttbfpt tm f`kb ‗fbh`rbhimds’f`ttbr (A
BX@U
 `da B
S_QBID
, 5338), abspitb ` g`nj-obdtury bn`psidh sidob hbmhr`pgbr Lb`d Hmttf`dd’ssbfid`n `d`nysis mj fbh`nmpmnis. Id ` sihdiffo`dt omdtri-eutimd tm tgb fbh`nmpmnis abe`tb, Z
IOIDM
 bt `n.
’s (5338)`d`nysis mj tgb Dmrtgb`stbrd _b`em`ra mj tgb Rditba_t`tbs sgmws tg`t ffjty yb`rs md, fbh`nmpmnis idabba ambsf`ttbr. Xginb ebidh fmrb sueure`dizba tg`d ebjmrb,tgbir `d`nysis suhhbsts tg`t tgb mna omdtr`sts mj sp`ob(oity‟sueure) `da r`ob (en`ok‟wgitb) am dmt rbprbsbdttgb ‗ffvb aistidot onustbrs mj ure`d pn`obs
 . . .
 „`jſtubdt,pmvbrty, En`ok fiaanb on`ss, iffihr`dt h`tbw`y, `dafiaanb @fbrio`‖’(Z
IOIDM
 bt `n.
, 5338, p. ?11).@oomraidh tm mtgbr fbh`-rbhimd `d`nysts, wg`t isaijjbrbdt dmw id Dmrtg @fbrio` `rb tgrbb tgidhs<so`nb, tgb dufebrmj tr`vbn trips `da rbsuntidh tr`jffo omd-hbstimd `da pmnnutimd, `da n`da pbr o`pit`. Jmr Q
BIQ\
`da E
@UEMRU
 (5338) tgb ‗rb`n aijjbrbdob’ is tgis tgiraitbf, n`da omdsufptimd pbr o`pit`. @ jmurtg o`d eb`aaba, `s sgmwd ey tgb omdtrieutmrs tm tgis spboi`nissub, tg`t tgb fbh`-rbhimd is ` dbw sp`ti`n
 `da 
 tbfpmr`nbdtity, ` pmnyobdtrio funti-fbtrmpmnis mj sgijtidh `daayd`fio funti-so`n`r `da funti-spbba `rogitboturbwgmsb abvbnmpfbdt`n nmhios rbspmda tm ` dbw sbt mj omdaitimds. Qgmsb oity rbhimds tg`t o`d idtbhr`tbsbrviob abnivbry jmr tgb hrb`tbst dufebr mj pbmpnb vi`funti-fma`n tr`dspmrt nidks witg wiabny `v`in`enberm`ae`da `da obnnun`r omddbotivity `rb prboisbny tgmsbpbrobivba tm eb bdlmyidh smoi`n `da bomdmfio prmspbr-ity. It wmuna sbbf tg`t tgb gihgbr tgb vbnmoitibs `dae`dawiatgs, `da tgb hrb`tbr tgb r`dhb mj mptimds, tgbhrb`tbr tgb `oobssieinity jmr hnme`n idvbstmrs; `s ‗Burm-Ninnb’, tgb prmnijbr`timd mj gihg-spbba r`in, ` wmrnawiabw`vb mj f`lmr `irpmrt bxp`dsimds, `da emmfidhDmrtg @fbrio`d oity rbhimds obdtrba md idtbrdbttrudk nidbs, suog `s X`sgidhtmd, AO, `da tgb Qbx`sRre`d Qri`dhnb `nn `ttbst.Qgb ffrst twm omdtrieutimds id tgis spboi`n issub`ttbfpt tm `d`nysb `da udabrst`da tgb sp`ti`n‟tbfpmr`nayd`fios `ormss tgb oity rbhimd usidh tgb `v`in`enb st`t-istio`n a`t` md tgbir o`sb stuay `rb`s. Umebrt N`dh `daS`un Kdmx jmous tgbir omdtrieutimd md tgb sp`ti`nity mj tgb og`dhidh oity rbhimd fmrpgmnmhy mvbr tifb id tgbRditba _t`tbs ey usidh tgb R_ Obdsus Eurb`u’s fbtrm-pmnit`d a`t` `da st`tistio`n o`tbhmribs tm `d`nysb tgbtrbdas id fbtrmpmnit`d jmrf, so`nb, `da omddbotivity.Qgbir `d`nysis suhhbsts tg`t ure`d jmrf g`s ebbd‗strbtogba `da rbsg`pba’, witg dbw omffutidh rmutbsabtbrfididh p`ttbrds mj sp`ti`n‟bomdmfio idtbhr`timd.Qgby pmstun`tb tgb bxistbdob mj tbd fbh`pmnit`d `rb`somdt`ididh db`rny 83% mj tgb R_ pmpun`timd. Qgbyusb tgis sp`ti`n fmabn tm bxtr`pmn`tb bxistidh trbdastm 5313 `da tm prbaiot tgb bfbrhbdob mj `d bvbdn`rhbr tr`ds-fbtrmpmnit`d ure`d struoturb ‟ tgb ‗fbh`-pmnit`d rbhimd’. Qgby omdonuab ‗tg`t tgb jr`hfbdtba
887
 Fiog`bn Dbuf`d `da @dhbn` Gunn 
 A m w dn m `a ba  @ t < 03 <?9 02  J be r u ` r y 5305

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