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Table Of Contents

1. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
1.1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
1.1.1 Definition and Importance ofND T
1.1.2 Types of NDTMethods
1.1.3 Visual testing (VT)
/. 1.4 Liquid penetrant testing (PT)
1.1.5 Magn etic particle testing (MT)
1.1.6 Eddy current testing (ET)
1.1.7 Radiographic testing method (RT)
1.1.8 Ultrasonic testing (UT)
1.1.9 Comparison of Different NDT Methods
1.2 MATERIALS AND DEFECTS
1.2.1 Structure of metals and alloys
1.2.2 Properties of materials (metallic & non-metallic)
1.2.3 Discontinuities and defects in metallic materials
1.3 PROCESSING AND DEFECTS
1.3.1 Primary processes and related defects
1.3.2 Manufacturing processes and related defects
1. 4 MATERIALS IN SERVICE
1.4.1 Behaviour of materials in service
1.4.2 Conditions leading to defects and failures
1.4.3 Concepts of rupture development in metals
1.5 QUALITY AND STANDARDIZATION
1.5.1 Need for quality control and assurance
1.5.2 Basic definitions related to quality and standardization
1.5.3 Responsibility for quality
1.5.4 Quality control applications ofNDT
1.5.5 Quality manuals
1.5.6 Quality system
2.1 THE NATURE OF ULTRASONIC WAVES
2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE PROPAGATION
2.2.1 Frequency
2.2.3 Wavelength
2.3.4 Lamb or plate waves
2.4 BEHAVIOUR OF ULTRASONIC WAVES
2.4.1 Reflection and transmission at normal incidence
2.4.2 Reflection and transmission at oblique incidence
2.5 TRANSFER OF ENERGY FROM ONE MEDIUM TO ANOTHER
2.5.1 Generation of ultrasonic waves
2.5.2 Energy losses in various media
2.6 PIEZOELECTRIC AND MAGNETOSTRICTIVE EFFECT ON THE CRYSTAL
2.6.1 Piezoelectric effect
2.6.2 Magnetostrictive effect and transducers
2.7 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ULTRASONIC BEAM
2.7.1 The ultrasonic beam
2.7.2 Field divergence or beam spread
2.7.3 Influence of sound velocity and transducer size
ATTENUATION OF SOUND
2.8.2 Principles of measurement of attenuation
3. TESTING TECHNIQUES AND THEIR LIMITATIONS
3.1 BASIC ULTRASONIC TEST METHODS
3.1.1 Through transmission method
3.1.2 Pulse echo method
3.1.4 Automatic and semi-automatic methods
3.2.1 Normal incidence sensors
3.2.2 Angular incidence sensors
3.3.1 Tandem techniques
3.3.2 Focused sensor technique
3.3.3 Double-crystal sensor techniques
3.3.4 Surface wave sensor techniques
LIMITATIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE ULTRASONIC TEST METHOD
4. ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES
4.1 CONSTRUCTION AND MODE OF OPERATION OF ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT
4.1.1 Functions of the electronic components in a typical instrument
4.1.2 Types of instrumentation
4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM CONTROLS
4.2.1 Properties of vertical and horizontal amplifiers
4.2.3 Linearity
4.2.4 Saturation
4.3 SIGNAL PRESENTATION
4.3.1 Echo amplitude and its control
4.3.2 A -scan presentation
4.3.3 B-scan presentation
4.3.4 C-scan presentation
Correlation of digital and analogue signals
RECORDING INSTRUMENTS
4.4.2 Computer interfacing
4.4.3 Recorders, printers and colour markers
5. CALIBRATION OF THE TESTING SYSTEM
5.1 PURPOSE OF CALIBRATION
5.2 STANDARD TEST BLOCKS
5.2.1 Calibration and reference blocks
5.2.3 V2 calibration block
5.2.4 ASME reference block
5.2.5 A rea-amplitude blocks
5.2.6 Distance-amplitude blocks
5.2.7 ASTM blocks
5.3 EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS
5.3.1 Horizontal linearity
5.3.2 Screen height linearity
5.3.3 Amplitude control linearity
5.3.4 Resolution
5.3.5 Maximum penetrative power
5.3.6 Determining the pulse length
5.4 CALIBRATION WITH NORMAL PROBES
5.4.1 Calibration of time base
5.5 CALIBRATION WITH ANGLE PROBES
5.5.1 Range calibration
5.5.2 Determination of the probe index
5.5.3 Determination and checking the probe angle
5.6 CALIBRATION IN CURVED WORK PIECES
5.6.1 Sensitivity
5.9 COUPLING MEDIUM
6. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
6.1 METHODS OF EXAMINATION
6.1.1 Cast work pieces
6.1.2 Welded work pieces
6.1.3 Components and systems
6.1.4 Austenitic materials
6.1.5 Forged work pieces
6.1.6 Non-metallic materials
CODES, STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURES
CODES, STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS RELATED TO ULTRASONIC TESTING
7.1.1 Standardization organizations
7.1.2 Types of standards
7.1.3 ASME boiler and pressure vessel code
7.1.4 Comparison of ultrasonic testing standards
7.2 TESTING PROCEDURES
7.2.1 Selection of equipment
7.3.2 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
7.3.3 International Institute of Welding (IIW)
7.3.4 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
7.3.5 German Standards Organization (Deutsches Institutfiir Normung) (DIN)
7.3.6 British Standards Institution (BSI)
7.3.7 Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC)
7.3.8 Standards Association of Australia (SAA)
7.3.9 Standards Council of Canada
7.3.10 American Petroleum Institute (API)
7.3.11 Miscellaneous standards
8. RECORDING AND EVALUATION OF TEST RESULTS
8.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF DEFECTS AND NEED FOR PROPER EVALUATION OF RESULTS
8.3 DATA TO BE RECORDED
CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFECTS
8.4.2 Defect sizing
8.5 DETERMINATION OF NATURE OF DEFECTS
8.5.1 Isolated pore
8.5.2 Porosity
5.5.3 Slag inclusion
& 5.4 Planar defects
8.6.1 Acceptance criteria ofASME Section XIfor reactor pressure vessel
8.6.2 A ccept / reject criteria for welds according to ASME Section VIII
8.6.4. Accept /reject criteria ofAPI-1104 (1994)
8.7 RECORDING AND REPORTING THE RESULTS OF A TEST
8.7.1 The test report
8.7.2 Other records
9. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
9.1 SPECIAL INSPECTION PROBLEMS AND TECHNIQUES USED TO SOLVE THEM
9.1.1 Air coupled acoustic measurements
9.1.3 A coustic microscopy
9.1.4 Detection of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking
9.1.6 Material property characterization
9.1.8 Electromagnetic acoustic techniques
9.2.4 Examples of automated ultrasonic testing in industry
9.3 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DATA PROCESSING
9.3.2 Signal transmission and detection
9.3.3 Data (signal) processing
9.3.5 Data presentation and recording
9.3.6 Some data processing systems
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW
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Published by Javon Baker

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Published by: Javon Baker on Feb 16, 2012
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