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Table Of Contents

Power Delivery System Control and Automation
1.2WHY DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION?
1.3POWER DELIVERY SYSTEMS
1.4CONTROL HIERARCHY
1.5WHAT IS DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION?
1.6DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION SYSTEM
1.7BASIC ARCHITECTURES AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR DA
1.8DEFINITIONS OF AUTOMATED DEVICE PREPAREDNESS
REFERENCES
Central Control and Management
2.2POWER SYSTEM OPERATION
2.3OPERATIONS ENVIRONMENT OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
2.4EVOLUTION OF DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
2.5BASIC DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
2.6BASIS OF A REAL-TIME CONTROL SYSTEM (SCADA)
2.7OUTAGE MANAGEMENT
2.7.2ADVANCED APPLICATION-BASED OUTAGE MANAGEMENT
2.7.3GIS-CENTRIC VERSUS SCADA-CENTRIC
2.8DECISION SUPPORT APPLICATIONS
2.8.1OPERATOR LOAD FLOW
2.8.2FAULT CALCULATION
2.8.3LOSS MINIMIZATION
2.8.4VAR CONTROL
2.8.5VOLT CONTROL
2.8.6DATA DEPENDENCY
2.9SUBSYSTEMS
2.9.1SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
2.9.2SUBSTATION LOCAL AUTOMATION
2.10EXTENDED CONTROL FEEDER AUTOMATION
2.11PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND RESPONSE TIMES
2.11.2CALCULATION OF DA RESPONSE TIMES
2.11.3RESPONSE TIMES
2.12DATABASE STRUCTURES AND INTERFACES
2.12.1NETWORK DATA MODEL REPRESENTATIONS
2.12.2SCADA DATA MODELS
2.12.3DMS DATA NEEDS, SOURCES, AND INTERFACES
2.12.4DATA MODEL STANDARDS (CIM)
2.12.5DATA INTERFACE STANDARDS
3.2DESIGN OF NETWORKS
3.2.10EARTHING (GROUNDING)
3.2.11LOST ENERGY
3.2.12COMPARISON OF U.K. AND U.S. NETWORKS
3.5EXTENDED CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS AND LV NETWORKS
Hardware for Distribution Systems
4.1INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR
4.2PRIMARY SWITCHGEAR
4.3GROUND-MOUNTED NETWORK SUBSTATIONS
4.4LARGER DISTRIBUTION/COMPACT SUBSTATIONS
4.5POLE-MOUNTED ENCLOSED SWITCHES
4.6POLE-MOUNTED RECLOSERS
4.7POLE-MOUNTED SWITCH DISCONNECTORS AND DISCONNECTORS
4.8OPERATING MECHANISMS AND ACTUATORS
4.8.1MOTORIZED ACTUATORS
4.8.2MAGNETIC ACTUATORS
4.9CURRENT AND VOLTAGE MEASURING DEVICES
4.9.1ELECTROMAGNETIC CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
4.9.2VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
4.10INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS IN EXTENDED CONTROL
4.11CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SENSORS
4.11.1CURRENT SENSOR
4.11.2VOLTAGE SENSOR
4.11.3COMBI SENSOR AND SENSOR PACKAGING
REFERENCE
Protection and Control
5.2PROTECTION USING RELAYS
5.3SENSITIVE EARTH FAULT AND INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION SCHEMES
5.4PROTECTION USING FUSES
5.6EARTH FAULTS ON COMPENSATED NETWORKS
5.7EARTH FAULTS ON UNEARTHED NETWORKS
5.9FAULT PASSAGE INDICATION
5.9.2WHAT IS THE FAULT PASSAGE INDICATOR, THEN?
5.9.5OTHER APPLICATIONS OF DIRECTIONAL INDICATORS
5.10CONNECTION OF THE FPI TO THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDUCTOR
5.10.1CONNECTION USING CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
5.10.2CONNECTIONS USING CTS ON UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS
5.10.3CONNECTIONS USING CTS ON OVERHEAD SYSTEMS
5.11DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EARTHING AND FAULT PASSAGE INDICATION
5.11.1DETECTION OF STEADY-STATE FAULT CONDITIONS
5.11.2DETECTION OF TRANSIENT FAULT CONDITIONS
5.11.3INDICATION OF SENSITIVE EARTH FAULTS
5.12AUTORECLOSING AND FAULT PASSAGE INDICATORS
5.13THE CHOICE OF INDICATION BETWEEN PHASE FAULT AND EARTH FAULT
5.14RESETTING THE FAULT PASSAGE INDICATOR
5.15GRADING OF FAULT PASSAGE INDICATORS
5.16SELECTING A FAULT PASSAGE INDICATOR
5.17INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICES
5.17.1REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT
5.17.2PROTECTION-BASED IED
5.18POWER SUPPLIES FOR EXTENDED CONTROL
5.19AUTOMATION READY SWITCHGEAR — FA BUILDING BLOCKS
5.19.1SWITCH OPTIONS
5.19.2DRIVE (ACTUATOR) OPTIONS
5.19.3RTU OPTIONS
5.19.4CT/VT OPTIONS
5.19.5COMMUNICATIONS OPTIONS
5.19.6FPI OPTIONS
5.19.7BATTERY OPTIONS
5.19.8INTERFACES WITHIN BUILDING BLOCKS
5.20EXAMPLES OF BUILDING BLOCKS
5.21TYPICAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS FOR BUILDING BLOCKS
5.21.1SECTIONALIZING SWITCH (NO MEASUREMENTS)
5.21.2SECTIONALIZING SWITCH (WITH MEASUREMENTS)
5.21.3PROTECTION-BASED RECLOSER FOR OVERHEAD SYSTEMS
5.22CONTROL BUILDING BLOCKS AND RETROFIT
5.23CONTROL LOGIC
5.23.3OPTIONS 3 AND 4, NO FAULT PASSAGE INDICATORS
5.23.4OPTIONS 5 AND 7, LOCAL CONTROL ONLY
5.23.5OPTIONS 6 AND 8, LOCAL CONTROL ONLY
Performance of Distribution Systems
6.1FAULTS ON DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
6.2PERFORMANCE AND BASIC RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS
6.2.6SUMMARY OF CALCULATED RESULTS
6.2.7CALCULATING THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED CONTROL
6.2.9IMPROVING PERFORMANCE WITHOUT AUTOMATION
6.3IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF UNDERGROUND NETWORKS
6.3.3DESIGN METHOD 3 — ADD AUTOMATIC IN LINE PROTECTION
6.3.4DESIGN METHOD 4 — ADD CONTINUOUS ALTERNATIVE SUPPLY
6.5IMPROVING PERFORMANCE WITH AUTOMATION
7.4WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
7.4.5TRUNKED SYSTEMS (PUBLIC PACKET-SWITCHED RADIO)
7.4.6CELLULAR
7.4.7PAGING TECHNOLOGY
7.4.8SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS — LOW EARTH ORBIT
7.5WIRE COMMUNICATIONS
7.5.1TELEPHONE LINE
7.5.2FIBER OPTICS
7.5.3DISTRIBUTION LINE CARRIER
7.5.4SUMMARY OF COMMUNICATIONS OPTIONS
7.6DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION COMMUNICATIONS PROTOCOLS
7.6.2DNP 3.0
7.6.3IEC 60870-5-101
7.6.4UCA 2.0, IEC 61850
7.7DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION COMMUNICATIONS ARCHITECTURE
7.7.1CENTRAL DMS COMMUNICATION
7.7.2POLLING AND REPORT BY EXCEPTION
7.7.3INTELLIGENT NODE CONTROLLERS/GATEWAYS
7.7.4INTERCONNECTION OF HETEROGENEOUS PROTOCOLS
7.8DA COMMUNICATIONS USER INTERFACE
7.9SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR DA COMMUNICATIONS SELECTION
7.10REQUIREMENTS FOR DIMENSIONING THE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
7.10.2CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
7.10.3COMMUNICATION MODEL
7.10.4CALCULATION OF THE REACTION OR THE RESPONSE TIME
Creating the Business Case
UTOMATION
8.8CAPITAL DEFERRAL, RELEASE, OR DISPLACEMENT
8.8.1DEFERRAL OF PRIMARY SUBSTATION CAPITAL INVESTMENT
8.8.2RELEASE OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK CAPACITY
8.8.3RELEASE OF UPSTREAM NETWORK AND SYSTEM CAPACITY
8.9SAVINGS IN PERSONNEL
8.9.1REDUCTION IN SUBSTATION/CONTROL CENTER OPERATING LEVELS
8.9.2REDUCTION IN INSPECTION VISITS
8.9.3REDUCTION IN CREW TIME
8.10SAVINGS RELATED TO ENERGY
8.10.3ENERGY SAVINGS DUE TO TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION
8.10.3.1Loss Reduction from Feeder Volt/VAR Control
8.11.1REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE BENEFITS
8.11.2BENEFITS FROM BETTER INFORMATION (DMOL)
8.11.3IMPROVED CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
8.12SUMMARY OF DA FUNCTIONS AND BENEFITS
8.13ECONOMIC VALUE — COST
8.13.1UTILITY COST
8.13.2CUSTOMER COST
8.13.3ECONOMIC VALUE
8.14PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Case Studies
9.2CASE STUDY 1, LONG RURAL FEEDER
9.3CASE STUDY 2, LARGE URBAN NETWORK
9.3.5SUMMARY OF COST SAVINGS
9.3.6COST OF SCADA/DMS SYSTEM
9.3.7COST BENEFITS AND PAYBACK PERIOD
9.3.8CONCLUSIONS
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Control and Automation of Electrical Power Distribution Systems

Control and Automation of Electrical Power Distribution Systems

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Published by Abdennour Daddi

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Published by: Abdennour Daddi on Feb 16, 2012
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