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1.1 Some sets
1.2 Pairs of reals
1.3 Exponentials and logs
1.4 Factorial, ﬂoor, and ceiling
1.5 Summations
1.6 Variation in notation
2.2 Propositions
2.3 Complex propositions
2.4 Implication
2.6 Complex statements
2.7 Logical Equivalence
2.12 Notation
2.13 Useful notation
2.14 Notation for 2D points
2.15 Negating statements with quantiﬁers
2.16 Binding and scope
2.17 Variations in Notation
3.1 Proving a universal statement
3.3 Direct proof outline
3.4 Proving existential statements
3.5 Disproving a universal statement
3.6 Disproving an existential statement
3.7 Recap of proof methods
3.8 Direct proof: example with two variables
3.9 Another example with two variables
3.10 Proof by cases
3.11 Rephrasing claims
3.12 Proof by contrapositive
3.13 Another example of proof by contrapos-
√2 is irrational
Number Theory
number theory
4.1 Factors and multiples
4.2 Direct proof with divisibility
4.3 Stay in the Set
4.4 Prime numbers
4.5 There are inﬁnitely many prime numbers
4.6 GCD and LCM
4.7 The division algorithm
4.8 Euclidean algorithm
4.9 Pseudocode
4.10 A recursive version of gcd
4.11 Congruence mod k
4.12 Proofs with congruence mod k
4.13 Equivalence classes
4.14 Wider perspective on equivalence
4.15 Variation in Terminology
5.1 Sets
5.2 Things to be careful about
5.3 Cardinality, inclusion
5.4 Vacuous truth
5.5 Set operations
5.6 Set identities
5.7 Size of set union
5.8 Product rule
5.9 Combining these basic rules
5.10 Proving facts about set inclusion
5.11 Example proof: deMorgan’s law
5.12 An example with products
5.13 Another example with products
5.14 A proof using sets and contrapositive
5.15 Variation in notation
Relations
6.1 Relations
6.2 Properties of relations: reﬂexive
6.3 Symmetric and antisymmetric
6.4 Transitive
6.5 Types of relations
6.6 Proving that a relation is an equivalence
6.7 Proving antisymmetry
Functions and onto
7.1 Functions
7.2 When are functions equal?
7.3 What isn’t a function?
7.4 Images and Onto
7.5 Why are some functions not onto?
7.6 Negating onto
7.7 Nested quantiﬁers
7.8 Proving that a function is onto
7.9 A 2D example
7.10 Composing two functions
7.11 A proof involving composition
7.12 Variation in terminology
Functions and one-to-one
8.1 One-to-one
8.2 Bijections
8.3 Pigeonhole Principle
8.4 Permutations
8.5 Further applications of permutations
8.6 Proving that a function is one-to-one
8.7 Composition and one-to-one
8.8 Strictly increasing functions are one-to-
8.9 Making this proof more succinct
8.10 Variation in terminology
9.1 Graphs
9.2 Degrees
9.3 Complete graphs
9.4 Cycle graphs and wheels
9.5 Isomorphism
9.6 Subgraphs
9.7 Walks, paths, and cycles
9.8 Connectivity
9.9 Distances
9.10 Euler circuits
9.11 Graph coloring
9.12 Why should I care?
9.13 Bipartite graphs
9.14 Variation in terminology
10.1 Introduction to induction
10.2 An Example
10.3 Why is this legit?
10.4 Building an inductive proof
10.5 Another example of induction
10.7 Another example
10.8 A geometrical example
10.9 Graph coloring
10.12 Prime factorization
10.13 Variation in notation
Recursive Deﬁnition
11.1 Recursive deﬁnitions
11.2 Finding closed forms
11.3 Divide and conquer
11.4 Hypercubes
11.5 Proofs with recursive deﬁnitions
11.6 Inductive deﬁnition and strong induc-
11.7 Variation in notation
12.1 Why trees?
12.2 Deﬁning trees
12.3 m-ary trees
12.4 Height vs number of nodes
12.5 Context-free grammars
12.6 Recursion trees
12.7 Another recursion tree example
12.8 Tree induction
12.9 Heap example
12.10 Proof using grammar trees
12.11 Variation in terminology
13.1 Running times of programs
13.2 Function growth: the ideas
13.3 Primitive functions
13.4 The formal deﬁnition
13.5 Applying the deﬁnition
13.6 Writing a big-O proof
13.7 Sample disproof
13.8 Variation in notation
Algorithms
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Basic data structures
14.3 Nested loops
14.4 Merging two lists
14.5 A reachability algorithm
14.6 Binary search
14.7 Mergesort
14.8 Tower of Hanoi
14.9 Multiplying big integers
15.1 Sets containing sets
15.2 Powersets and set-valued functions
15.3 Partitions
15.4 Combinations
15.5 Applying the combinations formula
15.6 Combinations with repetition
15.7 Identities for binomial coeﬃcients
15.8 Binomial Theorem
16.2 Wolf-goat-cabbage puzzle
16.3 Phone lattices
16.4 Representing functions
16.5 Transition functions
16.6 Shared states
16.7 Counting states
16.8 Variation in notation
17.1 The rationals and the reals
17.2 Completeness
17.3 Cardinality
17.4 More countably inﬁnite sets
17.5 Cantor Schroeder Bernstein Theorem
17.6 P(N) isn’t countable
17.7 More uncountability results
17.8 Uncomputability
17.9 Variation in notation
18.1 Planar graphs
18.2 Faces
18.3 Trees
18.4 Proof of Euler’s formula
18.5 Some corollaries of Euler’s formula
18.6 K3,3 is not planar
18.7 Kuratowski’s Theorem
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Cs 173 Textbook

# Cs 173 Textbook

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