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Table Of Contents

1.1INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION
1.1Introduction and Definition
1.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
1.3SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
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1.4COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL
1.5AN INTERDISCIPLINARY CHALLENGE
1.6A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH
1.7CLASSICAL vs MODERN CONCEPTS
1.8QUALITY CONTROL IN MANUFACTURING
1.9PRODUCT SAFETY
1.10GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)
1.11GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICES (GLP)
1.12MARKETING
REVIEW QUESTIONS
2.1INTRODUCTION
2.2CONCEPT OF pH
2.3PHYSICAL VARIABLES
2.4DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
2.5MEASUREMENT CONVENTIONS
2.6PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTY DATA
2.7STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS
2.8ERRORS IN DATA AND CALCULATIONS
2.9ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE UNCERTAINTY
2.10TYPES OF ERRORS
2.11STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
2.12PRESENTATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA
2.13DATA ANALYSIS
2.14TRENDS
2.15TESTING MATHEMATICAL MODELS
2.16GOODNESS OF FIT (CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION)
2.17USE OF GRAPH PAPER WITH LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES
2.18PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
2.19MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES
2.20FLUID FLOW AND MIXING
2.21MASS TRANSFER
2.22HEAT TRANSFER
2.23BIOREACTOR DESIGNING
2.24UNIT OPERATIONS
2.25HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS
2.26REACTOR ENGINEERING
3.1Public Perception of Biotechnology
3.1PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
3.2PATENTING (INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS—IPR)
3.3PATENTS
3.4INTERNATIONAL PATENT LAWS
3.5PATENTING IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
3.6VARIETAL PROTECTION
3.7ETHICAL ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY—AGRICULTURE AND
4.1Introduction
4.4BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEINS
4.5BUILDING BLOCKS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS: NUCLEOTIDES
4.6BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIPIDS: FATTY ACIDS, GLYCEROL
4.8CONFORMATION AND CONFIGURATION
4.9BIOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS
4.10MAJOR METABOLIC PATHWAYS
4.11 PRECURSOR–PRODUCT RELATIONSHIP
4.12 SUPRAMOLECULAR ASSEMBLY
4.13 BIOINFORMATICS AND BIOMOLECULAR DATABASES
5.2 CARBOHYDRATES
5.4ENZYMES
5.5NUCLEIC ACIDS
5.6LIPIDS AND BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
6.1Introduction
6.1INTRODUCTION
6.2TECHNIQUES BASED ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND SIZE
6.3TECHNIQUES BASED ON CHARGE
6.4TECHNIQUES BASED ON POLARITY
6.5TECHNIQUES BASED ON SPECTROSCOPY
6.6TECHNIQUES BASED ON SOLUBILITY
Chapter THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE
7.1Cell Structure and Components
7.1CELL STRUCTURE AND COMPONENTS
7.2TISSUES AND ORGANS
7.3EVOLUTION OF POPULATION
7.4SPECIATION
7.5BIODIVERSITY
7.6ADAPTATION
7.7NATURAL SELECTION
7.8ORGANIZATION OF LIFE
7.9SIZE AND COMPLEXITY
7.10INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
8.1CELL DIVISION
8.1Cell Division
8.2CELL CYCLE
8.3CELL COMMUNICATION AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
8.4MOVEMENT
8.5NUTRITION
8.6GASEOUS EXCHANGE
8.7INTERNAL TRANSPORT
8.8MAINTAINING INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
8.9REPRODUCTION
8.10ANIMAL AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT
8.11IMMUNE RESPONSE IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS
8.12APOPTOSIS
8.13DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN PLANTS
8.14PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTION
8.15SECONDARY METABOLISM
8.16DEFENSE STRATEGIES IN MICROBES AND INSECTS
9.2 MICROSCOPY
9.4 CELL FRACTIONATION
9.5 CELL-GROWTH DETERMINATION
10.1.Historical Perspectives
10.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
10.2MULTIPLE ALLELES
10.3LINKAGE AND CROSSING OVER
10.8QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE
10.9GENE AT THE POPULATION LEVEL
10.10DISCOVERY OF DNA AS GENETIC MATERIAL
10.11 MUTAGENESIS
10.15 ANIMAL AND PLANT BREEDING
11.1 GENOME ORGANIZATION
11.1 Genome Organization
11.2 GENOME-SEQUENCING PROJECTS
11.3 DNA REPLICATION
12.1FINE STRUCTURE OF A GENE
12.1Fine Structure of a Gene
12.2FROM GENE TO PROTEIN
12.3GENE EXPRESSION
12.4TRANSCRIPTION
12.5GENETIC CODE
12.6TRANSLATION
12.7REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
12.8GENETIC BASIS OF DIFFERENTIATION AND DEVELOPMENT
12.9HOUSEKEEPING GENES
12.10GENETICS OF CANCER
12.11IMMUNOGENETICS
12.12EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
13.1INTRODUCTION
13.1Introduction
13.2CHROMOSOMAL TECHNIQUES
13.3MUTAGENIC TECHNIQUES
13.4RECOMBINATION IN BACTERIA
13.5BREEDING METHODS IN PLANTS
13.6PEDIGREE ANALYSIS IN HUMANS
13.7DNA ISOLATION
14.1Introduction to the World of Proteins
14.1INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD OF PROTEINS
14.2THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE OF PROTEINS
14.3STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP IN PROTEINS
14.4PURIFICATION OF PROTEINS
14.5CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEINS
14.6PROTEIN-BASED PRODUCTS
14.7 DESIGNING PROTEINS
14.8 PROTEOMICS
15.1Introduction
15.1INTRODUCTION
15.2TOOLS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
15.3MAKING RECOMBINANT DNA
15.4DNA LIBRARY
15.11SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS
Chapter GENOMICS
16.1Introduction
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 GENOME MAPPING
16.3 GENOME-SEQUENCING PROJECTS
16.4GENE PREDICTION AND COUNTING
16.5GENOME SIMILARITY, SNPs, AND COMPARATIVE GENOMICS
16.6PHARMACOGENOMICS
16.7FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS AND MICROARRAYS
16.8MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY
Chapter BIOINFORMATICS
17.1History of Bioinformatics
17.1HISTORY OF BIOINFORMATICS
17.2SEQUENCE AND NOMENCLATURE
17.3INFORMATION SOURCES
17.4ANALYSIS USING BIOINFORMATICS TOOLS
18.1Introduction
18.1INTRODUCTION
18.2MICROBIAL CULTURE TECHNIQUES
18.3MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH
18.4SCALE UP OF A MICROBIAL PROCESS
18.5ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL PRODUCTS
18.6STRAIN ISOLATION AND IMPROVEMENT
18.7APPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL CULTURE TECHNOLOGY
18.8BIOETHICS IN MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY
19.1Introduction
19.1INTRODUCTION
19.2CELL- AND TISSUE-CULTURE TECHNIQUES
19.3APPLICATIONS OF CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
19.4GENE-TRANSFER METHODS IN PLANTS
19.5TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH BENEFICIAL TRAITS
19.6DIAGNOSTICS IN AGRICULTURE AND MOLECULAR BREEDING
19.7BIOETHICS IN PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING
REFERENCES
20.1Introduction
20.1INTRODUCTION
20.2ANIMAL CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUES
20.3CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL LINES
20.4SCALE-UP OF ANIMAL CELL CULTURE PROCESS
20.5APPLICATIONS OF ANIMAL-CELL CULTURES
20.6STEM-CELL TECHNOLOGY
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Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

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Published by Abdul Halim

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Published by: Abdul Halim on Feb 18, 2012
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