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J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Non-Linear Aspects of the Landau-Ginzburg Model with Applications to New High Temperature Superconductors

J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Non-Linear Aspects of the Landau-Ginzburg Model with Applications to New High Temperature Superconductors

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PhysicaC16
i
(i
989)687-706North-Holland
-
ON-LINEARASPECTSOFTHELANDAU-GINZBURGMODELWITHAPPLICATIONSTONEWHIGHTEMPERATURESUPERCONDUCTORS
J
.A.TUSZYNSKI
DepartmentofPhysics.UniversityofAlberta.Edmonton.Alberta.Canada.T6G
lJ
I
J.M.DIXON
DepartmentofPhysics.UniversityofWarwick.Coventry.CV47AL.UK
Received17June1989
Revisedmanuscriptreceived7October1989ALandau-Ginzburgmodelisproposedasaphenomenologicaldescriptionofbothstandardandhightemperaturesupercon-ductors.Attentionisdrawntoadirectlinkwithamicroscopicsecond-quantizedHamiltonian.Exactsolutionsoftheequationsofstatearefoundanddiscussedbothintheabsenceandpresenceofsuperconductingcurrents.Qualitativeagreementisfoundforthecriticalcurrentasafunctionofthereducedtemperature.Theimportanceoftheshortcoherencelengthinhigh
Tc
super-conductorsandthecorrelationbetweenthisandthesignoftheeffectivemassispointedout
1.
IntroductionFollowingthespectaculardiscoveryofceramicsuperconductorsbyBednorzandMUller[I
J
theflurryofexperimentalinvestigationsofthesecompoundsrevealedawealthofintriguingproperties[2
J.
Thereappeartobethreemaintypesofhigh
T;
compounds.Thefirsttaketheform
(La,
Sr)2Cu04(abbreviatedLSCO).andthesecondisusuallywrittenasRBa2+xCU307_xandcommonlycalledthe
1-2-3
compounds.AfurtherthirdgroupinvolveBiandTI.Thecommonstructuralelementinallthesecompoundsisanetworkof
Cu-O
planes.However,inthefirsttwotypesthereareadditionalchainsofCuions,whereasinthethirdtheyareabsent.Inallthecases
Cu-O
planesareseparatedby"spacers"involvingtheotherionspresent,conductivitybeingverymuchgreaterinthanbetweentheplanes.Theimportanceofdopinginthefirsttwotypesiswell-knownanditisbelievedtoaffectthevalenceofsomeoftheCuionswhichcanchangefromCu2+toCuJ+.therebygeneratingelectronsandholes.Thecurrentconsensus,fromHalleffectmeasurements,appearstobethatthechargecarriersinthesecompoundsareholes
[3
J.
However,morerecently,afourthgroupofcom-poundshasbeenfoundnamelyLnz_xCeXCu04_Y.whereLnisoneofthelighttrivalentlanthanides(praseo-dymium,neodymiumorsamarium),inwhichthecarriersareclaimedtobeelectrons
[4].
Thesamepropertyhasbeenreportedin
(Nd,
Pr}z_xThxCu04_y[5].Apartfromhavingveryhightransitiontemperaturesthesecompoundsexhibitseveraldistinctfeatureswhencomparedwithstandardsuperconductors,namely:(a)Aslowdropinresistivitybeforethesuperconductingtransition.(b)TheincompleteMeissnereffect.(c)Removaloftheantiferromagneticstate(AF)ondoping.(d)Elasticanomalies(softeningofmodes,structuralprecursortransitions).(e)Theslopeofthecriticalfield,
Hc2
versus
T,
i.e.
(dHcz/
d
T)T=
r..
ismuchlesssteepthanforconventionalsuperconductors.
0921-4534/89/$03.50
©
EisevierSciencePublishersB.V.(North-Holland)
 
688
LA.Tuszynski,j.M.DixonINon-linearaspectsofthe
Landau-Ginzburg
model
Thesephysicalpropertiespresentanenormouschallengetotheoreticianstryingtointerpretorexplaintheseobservations[6].Atpresentthereexistsnoconsensusintheresearchcommunityonthemechanismsthatdriveorbringaboutthesuperconductingphase.Therehavebeenalargenumberoftheoriesproposed,e.g,thestan-
dard
ReS
approach[7],theresonatingvalencebond(RVB)[8],thebi..
polaron
model[9],the
Davydov
bi-
solitonmodel[10],plasmon-mediatedpairformation[II),atheoryduetoSigmundandStevens[12].andtwo-bandFermi-liquidbasedtheories[13].WeshouldalsomentionAnderson'sspin-liquidmodel[14]andSchriefferetal.'sspin-bagproposal[15].Eachofthesehasattractivephysicalfeaturesbutnotofthemisfreeofweaknesses.Ourapproachishistoricallymotivated.The
BeS
theorywasprecededbyandinfluencedgreatly
by
earlierphenomenologicalinsightssuchasthe
Landau-Ginzburg
model
(LG)[16,17]
andso
We
adoptthis
lineofthought,InthispaperweexaminethephenomenologicalLGmodelwhichhasprovedtobeaveryusefulapproachintheinvestigationofnumerouscriticalphenomena.Initsapplicationtoconventionalsuperconductorsitpro-videsgenerallycorrectdescriptionsofsucheffectsasthepenetrationdepth,coherencelengthandcriticalcur-
rents.One
ofthe
strikingfeatures
ofthe
newsuperconductorsisthattheypossessaveryshortcoherencelength
oftheorderof20
A.
Thisimpliesthatameanfieldapproachwouldbegrosslyinappropriateandanattemptoughttobemadetoincorporateinherentnon-linearitiesandinhomogeneities.IntbjspaperwewillmakeuseofnewmathematicaldiscoverieswhichallowustocalculatesolutionsoftheappropriateLGequationinanexactornearexactformrelativetomeanfieldtheories.TheobjectiveofthiscalculationwillbetoverifywhethermoreaccurateLGmodellingcouldbeusedtoexplainsomeoftheexperimentallyobservedfeaturesinhigh
To
superconductors.2.TheLandau-GinzburgequationintheabsenceofexternalfieldsWewilladoptthestandardfreeenergydensityexpansion[16]
il
2
G.(r)=G
N
(r)+A(T)I\II(r)1
2
+!C!\II(rW+
2m*
W\II(r)
12
(I)
where
A(T)
=
a(T-T
c),
C>0and'llistheorderparameterwhichrepresentsthesuperconductingwave-func-tion.
G
N
isthefreeenergyofthenormalstateand
m*
isaneffectivemass.Thusthedensityofsuperconductingelectronsis
n.(r)=I\II(r)12.
(2)Usuallythelasttermineq.(I)isinterpretedasarisingfromthekineticenergywhere
m*
wouldcorrespondtotwicethemassofanelectronbecauseofthepresenceofCooperpairs.Inthepresentapplicationtohightemperaturesuperconductorsthisassumptionmaynotnecessarilybevalid.Theremaybeothereffectswhichcontributetothefreeenergyofthesameformasthekineticenergyterms,suchasexchangeinteractions,termsduetoimpurities,ortheinteractionsbetweenotherdegreesoffreedomandtheelectrons.Thisquestionwillbere-examinedlaterwhenwesolvetheresultingequations.Wewillnotassumeanythingaboutthesignorthetemperaturedependenceof
m*
atthisstage.ThenextstepistoassumethatthesolutionsoftheEuler-Lagrangeequations,obtainedbyminimisingthefreeenergy,arethosewhichcontributemosttotheequilibriumbulkbehaviour.Thatis
A(T)\II+C!1f11
2
!j1'-(
.,~_~*
V21f1=
0.
,..rn=)
(3)
Tosolveeq.(3)explicitlywerepresent
!jI'
as
\11=
11
exp(i¢)
(4)
 
1.A.Tuszynski,1.M.Dixon/Non-linearaspectsoftheLandau-Ginzburgmodel
689
where'1istheenvelopeand
tP
thecarrier.Substituting(4)into(3)andseparatingtherealandimaginarypartsgivesthefollowingtwocoupleddifferentialequations.Fortheimaginarypart:2V'1·j7~+"p2~=O
(5)
andfortherealpart:
fllfl2
A(T)'1+C'1
3-
2m*
J72'1+
2m*
'1<V9»1=0.
(6)
Thefirstoftheseequationsmaybewrittenas
!
·
['12V¢I)
=0.
n
Assuming'1#0,ofcourse,wecanintegrate(7)togive
q2V¢I=C.+VXF.
(7)
(8)
whereC
1
isanarbitraryconstantvectorand
F.
isanarbitraryvectorfunction.Thus,substituting
from(8)into(6)gives
3
fz2
2,,22
A(T),,+C'1
--2
*V'1+-2
*
3
(C1+VXF.)
=0.(9)
mm'1
Wewillexaminetwoparticularcaseswhichappeartobeofphysicalimportance.3.ThesituationwhenJ7XF
1
=-C
1;
withoutcurrentsFirst,choosing
VxF.
=-
C.
resultsin
¢I,
thecarrier,beingconstantandeq.(9)becomes
Izl
2m*P,,=A
(T),,+
C,,3.
(10)
Thisequationisathree-dimensionalnon-linearKlein-Gordonequation(NLKGE)whichwasrecentlyex-tensivelyinvestigatedusingtheSymmetryReductionMethod[18).Inbrief,theresultscanbesummarisedasfollows:-When
A#O
thesolution'1of
(10)
maydependonthesymmetryvariable~suchthat'1="{~)and~maybe
oneofthe
three
types,
I)
~=X3'
2)
~=
(xi+xnI/2,
3)
~=(xi+x~+xn'/l,
where
XI>X2,X3
mayrepresentanyoftheindependentvariables
X,
y,
z.Thecorrespondingreducedordinarydifferentialequation
(ODE)
for
'1
is
h
2
(d
2"
X
d'1)
3
2m*
d~2
+
{d~
=A(T)'1+C'1
(11)
where
X=
0,I,2forthethreecasesIto3above,respectively.When
A=O
thescalingtransformationwhichnowleavesequation
(10)
invariantallowsthreeextrareduc-tionswhichtaketheform

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