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J.A. Tuszynski and H. Cofta- On the Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Metamagnetism

J.A. Tuszynski and H. Cofta- On the Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Metamagnetism

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Physica11~B
(l9K.')
lfil-l71
Nonh·HoIlandPublishingCompany
<
ONTHEMAGNETOSTRICTIVEPHENOMENAINMETAMAGNETISM
J.A.TUSZYNSKIandH.COFTA"
Depanmen:of
Pll}'.flCS.
The
UniUfsity
of
("algcm\
Calgorv.AB.COlIQda
Received
I~
April19R2Revised21June111.2Asemi-classicalmodel
of
a
merarnagnet
exhibitingnon-lineartemperatureexpansionispresentedandanalyzed.AdirectcomparisonwiththeMn~GaCcompoundasanexampledisplayingsuchaphenomenonismade.Earlierpredictionsaboutthemechanismsinvolvedaregeneralizedandrefined.Twodistinctcasesofthefeasiblemetamagneticbehaviourarefoundandinvestigated.Bothcasesarefreeofinternalcontradictionsandparadoxes.incontrast
10
thepreviousmodels.Thepossibilities
of
applicationsofthismodeltoothertypesofmagneticsubstancesareoutlined.
1.
Introduction
In
thispaperweareprimarilyconcernedwiththe
rolernagnetostrictivephenoraena
playinthespontaneous(i.e.temperature-induced)meta-magneticphasetransitions.Spontaneousmetamagnets(inabroadersense)aredefinedassuchsubstanceswhichexhibitfirstorderphase.transitionsbetweentwomagnetic-allyorderedphasesunderthevariationof
tem-
peraturealoneandevenintheabsenceofexternalmagneticfield.Theparticularcaseofthetransitionsbetweentheferromagnetic(F)andantiferromagnetic(AF)phasesistermedthecollinearmetamagnetism.Thefollowingsubstancescanbelistedasexamplesofthetemperature-inducedmetamag-nets:-perovskite-likecarbideMnJGaC[1-4];-binarymetallicsystemFeRh{5];-chromiummodifiedMn2Sb,i.e.Mn2-.Cr~Sbwith
O.06~
x
~O.lO
[6-9J,-Frl.9S_xMn"AswithL19~x~
1.28
[101.
Thesecompoundsrepresentthefourmaintypesofmetamagnetictransitions:AF""'"F,F~AF,AF~Fi,Fi_".AF,respectively(thesymbolFidenotestheferrimagneticphase).Anumberofmechanismshavebeenproposed
InstituteorPhysics,The
A.
MickiewiczUniversity.Poznan.Poland.
0378-4363/83/(XX)().-O()()O/$03.001983North-Hollandasapossiblesourceoftheseorder-ordermag-netictransitions.First,Smart
Ill]
suggestedthelineardependenceontemperatureofthemag-neticsublatticemolecularfieldconstants:
I
A..
=
A~(1
+
aa
T),
(1)
where
a
denotesthesublatticeindex.Then,
Neel[12-13]
assumedtheanisotropyconstants
K~
and
K4
as
thecauseofspontaneousmetamagnetismprovidedtheydependontemperatureintwodistinctmanners:and
(2)
Otherauthors[14-18]furthermodifiedtheNeelmodeltoincludetheexchangeinteractions.Stillanothergroup[19-21]claimedtheinteractionsbetweenlocalizedandcollectiveelectronspinsintheitinerantmagnetismtheorytoberesponsibleforthephenomenonunderconsideration.Recently,Onyszkiewicz[22-261haspublishedaseriesofpaperswhereinhehasdevelopedamicroscopictheorybasedonthefour-spincoup-lings.IthasalsobeenattemptedtodescribemetamagnetismintermsoftheLandautheoryofphasetransitionswithtwointeractingorderparameters
[27].
Noneoftheabove-mentionedtheories.however,fullyexplainsthemagnetostrictiveeffectsassociatedwithspontaneousmetamag-
 
162
J.A.
Tus:)·nski.H.CoftaI
MQKIlt'lo.~triClil~pht'nomt'non'"mt'IQmagnf'tism
netism.Thediscoveryofabruptlatticeparameterdiscontinuities(withoutanystructuralchangesinthecrystallattice)accompanyingallthesetransitionsatthemetamagnetictem-perature
TM
ledKittel
1281
tobelievethatthemagnetoelasticmechanismsgovernthetem-peraturemetamagnetism.AllotherpapersthatfollowedtheideaofKittel's
129-31.
1.
21
employedtheso-calledexchangeinversionhypothesiswhichassertsthattheinter-sublatticeexchangeconstantAinverts(i.e.changesitssign)atT
M
orthat
A(T=
TM)=O.(3)
Suchabehaviourissupposedtoresultfromthedependenceof
A
ontheinter-ionicseparationsimultaneouslywiththethermalexpansionofthecrystallattice.However,inthecaseoftheMn3GaCcompoundtheinterpretationofexperimentaldatabythemeansoftheKittelmodelhasprovenunsatisfactory.Unlikeothermetamagnets,thissubstancedisplaysunam-biguouslyobserved[1-4]latticecontractionat
T
M
Itisourbeliefthattheshortcomingsofthelattertheorycanbeeasilyeliminated
if
onlysomeover-simplificationsareremoved.First,thelineardependenceoftheexchangeconstantonthelatticespacing:
(A(x»
3:
A(i).
(4)seemstobetoocrudeanapproximation.
It
im-pliestheformoftheconditionfortheAF
-+
Ftransitionas
d(A)
=
a.
aA(i)
>
0
dT
P
ai.
(5)
(j3
isthethermalexpansioncoefficient),whichiscontradictorytotherequirementthatthelatticeparameterbecontractedat
T
M:
where
K
standsforthecompressibilityconstant.Moreover.withinthisframework,thediscon-tinuityintheexchangeconstantAat
T,..
appearstohaveanegativesignmakingthetransitiontotheF-phaseimpossible.Second.thequadraticthermalexpansionofthecrystallatticeoftheMn.,GaC
11-41
hasneverbeenfullyexploitedinthetheoreticalinvestigations.
It
isveryattrac-tive,however.totakeacloselookatthethermalexpansioncoefficientsastheycontainthein-formationaboutthestrengthofmagnetoelasticinteractions.
In
thispaperweproposeasemi-classicaltheoryofthethermallyexpansibletwo-sublatticemagnet.Themagneticsublatticesareassumedtobeequivalentbutthegeneralizationtothecaseofnonequivalentsublatticesisstraightforward.Bythemeansofstatisticalanalysisweintendtoreplacetheapproximateandcontradictivecon-ditions
(4H6)
withamoreplausiblesetoffor-rnulas.ofhigheraccuracyandfreeofparadoxes.AdiJctreferencetptheexperimentaldataoftheMn3GaCcompoundwillalsobemade.
2.The
model
ConsiderthefollowingHamiltonian:(7)where
HL
describesthecrystallatticeinter-actionsand
HM
denotesthemagneticpartoftheHamiltonian.Sinceweintendtoaccountforthequadratictemperatureexpansionofthelattice,thecrystalpotentialoughttoincludeatleastthetermsuptothesixthpowerinthelatticespacing
rij:
(8)(6)
where
Uq
=
Irq-
rtl
denotesthedisplacementfromthetwo-ionzero-temperatureseparation
r~""r?-rJ.
WeassumethemagneticHamil-tonian
HM
toconsistoftheHeisenbergexchangeandthemagneticanisotropytermwhichdeter-minestheeasymagnetizationaxis
x:
HM
=
-~LJM
+
L
[K
z
(Sr)2+K
4
(S:t].
iJlr-i
i
(9)
 
Sincetheeasymagnetizationaxisinthecollinearmetamagnetismisfoundtobefairlyconstantwithtemperature.fromnowonwardsweutilizethequasi-one-dimensionaldescriptionofthesystemwiththe
x-cornponent
of
"<r
denotedby
Xii'
being
the
onlyonepresentinthepseudo-Hamiltonian.Moreover.weexpandtheexchangeintegral
J
'J
intermsof
Xi)
up
tothesecondorder(10)where
(lOa)
Theexpansioncoefficientsareassumedtobeindependent
of
thechoiceofapairofions.Note.thatsince
Jij
dependson
Xii.
thetwooperators
HM
and
HI,.
do
notcommutewitheachother.Forthesake
bf
convenience.letusseparatetwodistinctcontributionstothemagneticHamil-tonian:
H~
==-
1.
LJaSrS,
2
i'"
(11)and
(12)
accordingtotheircommutationrelations
IH~,Hd
=0
(13)and
[HLM'
Hd
;eo,(14)aswellastherolestheyplayinthephenomenon.
3.
StatisticalaveragesSinceourmajorinterestconcentratesaroundthemacroscopicpropertiesofthemetamagnet
16..1
(inparticular.thelatticecontractionat
T
"f).
we
nowinvestigatethestatisticalpropertiesofthemodel.Duetothenon-commutationof
HL
and
H
M
boththedensitymatrix
p
(15)
andthepartitionfunction
Z
Z
=
tr
p
(16)
cannotbecontainedintheexactanalyticalform.Inthepreviouspaper
[31].
theapproximationforthedensitymatrixhasbeenadoptedinthezerothorder:(17)andtheBogolyubovprincipleforthefreeenergycalculationhasthenbeenapplied.Inorder
(0
improveouraccuracywepresentlyusetheBaker-Hausdorff-Campbellformu1a
I
exp{Hl
+
H
2)
=
exp(H1)exp(H
2)
x
exp{-~[Hh
H
2}-
h[H1[H
I,
H
]J
+
TIlH
2
[H
2,
HI]]
+...},
(18)
where
HI
and
H2
win
bechosendependingonthespecificcaseconsidered.Whencalculatingtheaverageofanarbitraryposition-dependentfunction
!(X
i),
wetakeand
(19)
andnoticethat
[H"H
2]""
o.
On
theotherhand.forthecalculationsofaspin-dependentfunction
g(S,)
wemakeanotherchoice:and(20)andneglectthethirdexponent
of(18).
Suchseparationsas(19)and(20)allowustoobtaintheaveragesoverthespinandlatticevariablesindependently.Beforeproceedinganyfurther.however,weassumethemeanfieldapproximation(MFA)neglectingfluctuationswithineach
of
themag-

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