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USArmy - Urban Intel

USArmy - Urban Intel

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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

FM 2-91.4 INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TO URBAN OPERATIONS
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

JANUARY 2008

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies only because it requires protection in accordance with AR 380-5 and as specified by DCS G-3 Message DTG 091913Z Mar 04. This determination was made on 7 January 2007. Contractor and other requests must be referred to ATTN: ATZS-CDI-D, US Army Intelligence Center, Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-7017, or
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

FM 2-91.4 INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TO URBAN OPERATIONS
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

JANUARY 2008

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies only because it requires protection in accordance with AR 380-5 and as specified by DCS G-3 Message DTG 091913Z Mar 04. This determination was made on 7 January 2007. Contractor and other requests must be referred to ATTN: ATZS-CDI-D, US Army Intelligence Center, Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-7017, or

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Published by: James Allen Isaacs Jr. on Feb 18, 2012
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05/22/2013

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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
 
FM 2-91.4INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TOURBAN OPERATIONS
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYJANUARY 2008
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:
Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies onlybecause it requires protection in accordance with AR 380-5 and as specified by DCS G-3Message DTG 091913Z Mar 04. This determination was made on 7 January 2007
.
Contractorand other requests must be referred to ATTN: ATZS-CDI-D, US Army Intelligence Center,Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-7017, or via e-mail atATZS-FDC-D@conus.army.mil.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE
 
Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents orreconstruction of the document.
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
 
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY*FM 2-91.4
Distribution Restriction:
Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies only because it requiresprotection in accordance with AR 380-5 and as specified by DCS G-3 Message DTG 091913Z Mar 04. Thisdetermination was made on 7 January 2007. Contractor and other requests must be referred toATTN: ATZS-CDI-D, US Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-7017, or via email atATZS-FDC-D@conus.army.mil.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE––Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure of contents orreconstruction of the document.*This publication supersedes FMI 2-91.4, March 2005.
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
 i
Field ManualNo. 2-91.4HeadquartersDepartment of the ArmyWashington, DC, (Draft)
Intelligence Support to Urban Operations
Contents
Page
PREFACE..............................................................................................................v
 
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................vi
 
Chapter 1 INTELLIGENCE AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT......................................1-1
 
Civil Considerations (ASCOPE).........................................................................1-1
 
Terrain and Weather..........................................................................................1-2
 
Society (Socio-Cultural)....................................................................................1-18
 
Infrastructure....................................................................................................1-25
 
Chapter 2 THE THREAT IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT..............................................2-1
 
Conventional Military and Paramilitary Forces...................................................2-1
 
Insurgents or Guerrillas......................................................................................2-3
 
Terrorists............................................................................................................2-4
 
Crime and Criminal Organizations.....................................................................2-5
 
Information Operations.......................................................................................2-6
 
Health Issues......................................................................................................2-8
 
Other Urban Concerns.......................................................................................2-9
 
Chapter 3 INFORMATION SOURCES IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT........................3-1
 
Scouts, Snipers, Reconnaissance.....................................................................3-1
 
 
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
 
Contentsii FM 2-91.4 January 2008 (Draft)
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
Special Operations Forces..................................................................................3-2
 
Engineers............................................................................................................3-2
 
Medical................................................................................................................3-2
 
Aviation...............................................................................................................3-3
 
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear................................................3-4
 
Air Defense Artillery............................................................................................3-4
 
Civil Affairs..........................................................................................................3-4
 
Psychological Operations Teams.......................................................................3-4
 
Military Police......................................................................................................3-5
 
Explosive Ordnance Disposal.............................................................................3-5
 
Transportation And Logistics..............................................................................3-5
 
Civilian Linguists And Local Hires.......................................................................3-6
 
Joint/DOD............................................................................................................3-6
 
Multinational........................................................................................................3-7
 
International and Intergovernmental Organizations............................................3-7
 
Non-Governmental Organizations......................................................................3-8
 
Local National Authorities...................................................................................3-8
 
Chapter 4 INTELLIGENCE COLLECTION DISCIPLINES IN THE URBANENVIRONMENT..................................................................................................4-1
 
Human Intelligence.............................................................................................4-1
 
Imagery Intelligence............................................................................................4-2
 
Signals Intelligence.............................................................................................4-3
 
Measurement and Signature Intelligence...........................................................4-3
 
Counterintelligence.............................................................................................4-4
 
Geospatial Intelligence........................................................................................4-5
 
Technical Intelligence.........................................................................................4-6
 
Open-Source Intelligence...................................................................................4-6
 
Geospatial Information........................................................................................4-8
 
Chapter 5 OPERATIONS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.............................................5-1
 
Plan.....................................................................................................................5-1
 
Prepare...............................................................................................................5-3
 
Execute...............................................................................................................5-3
 
Assess.................................................................................................................5-4
 
Appendix A URBAN INTELIGENCE TOOLS AND PRODUCTS.........................................A-1
 
Appendix B NON-US SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS EFFECTS IN THEURBAN ENVIRONMENT..................................................................................B-1
 
GLOSSARY..........................................................................................Glossary-1
 
REFERENCES..................................................................................References-1
 
INDEX.........................................................................................................Index-1
 

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