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Table Of Contents

1.1 ALPHABETS AND LANGUAGES
1.2 PROCEDURES AND ALGORITHMS
1.3 REPRESENTATIONS OF LANGUAGES 5
1.3 REPRESENTATIONS OF LANGUAGES
PROBLEMS 7
2.1 MOTIVATION
2.2 THE FORMAL NOTION OF A GRAMMAR
2.3 THE TYPES OF GRAMMARS 13
2.3 THE TYPES OF GRAMMARS
2.4 THE EMPTY SENTENCE 15
2.4 THE EMPTY SENTENCE
2.5 RECURSlVENESS OF CONTEXT-SENSITIVE GRAMMARS
2,6 DERIVATION TREES FOR CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS
REFERENCES 25
3.1 THE FINITE AUTOMATON
3.2 EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS AND FINITE AUTOMATA
3.3 NONDETERMINISTIC FINITE AUTOMATA
3.4 FINITE AUTOMATA AND TYPE 3 LANGUAGES 33
3.4 FINITE AUTOMATA AND TYPE 3 LANGUAGES
3.5 PROPERTIES OF TYPE 3 LANGUAGES 35
3.5 PROPERTIES OF TYPE 3 LANGUAGES
3.7 TWO-WAY FINITE AUTOMATA
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES 45
4.1 SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS
4.2 CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM 51
4.2 CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM
4.3 GREIBACH NORMAL FORM 53
4.3 GREIBACH NORMAL FORM
4.4 SOLVABILITY OF FINITENESS; THE uvwxy THEOREM 57
4.4 SOLVABILITY OF FINITENESS AND THE "uvwxy THEOREM"
4.5 THE SELF-EMBEDDING PROPERTY 61
4.5 THE SELF-EMBEDDING PROPERTY
4.6 ~-RULES IN CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS
4.7 SPECIAL CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES AND GRAMMARS 63
4.7 SPECIAL TYPES OF CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES AND GRAMMARS
5.1 INFORMAL DESCRIPTION
5.2 DEFINITIONS
6.2 DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION
6.3 TECHNIQUES FOR TURING MACHINE CONSTRUCTION
6.4 THE TURING MACHINE AS A PROCEDURE 91
6.4 THE TURING MACHINE AS A PROCEDURE
6.5 MODIFICATIONS OF TURING MACHINES
6.6 RESTRICTED TURING MACHINES EQUIVALENT TO THE BASIC MODEL
7.1 INFORMAL DISCUSSION
7.2 A UNIVERSAL TURING MACHINE
7.3 THE UNSOLVABILITY OF THE HALTING PROBLEM
7.4 THE CLASS OF RECURSlVE SETS 109
7.4 THE CLASS OF RECURSIVrE SETS
7.5 TURING MACHINES AND TYPE 0 GRAMMARS 111
7.5 TURING MACHINES AND TYPE 0 GRAMMARS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 CLOSURE UNDER ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS
9.3 CLOSURE UNDER MAPPINGS
10.2 DEFINITIONS
10.3 "SPEED UP" AND "TAPE REDUCTION" THEOREMS 137
10.3 "SPEED UP" AND "TAPE REDUCTION" THEOREMS
10.4 SINGLE-TAPE TURING MACHINES AND CROSSING SEQUENCES
10.5 LOWER BOUNDS ON TAPE COMPLEXITY 147
10.5 LOWER BOUNDS ON TAPE COMPLEXITY
10.6 TAPE AND TIME HIERARCHIES 149
10,6 TAPE AND TIME HIERARCHIES
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR RECOGNITION OF CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES
11.3 SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR RECOGNITION OF CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2 COMPLEMENTS OF DETERMINISTIC LANGUAGES 167
12.2 COMPLEMENTS OF DETERMINISTIC LANGUAGES
12.3 PROPERTIES OF DETERMINISTIC LANGUAGES 171
12.3 PROPERTIES OF DETERMINISTIC LANGUAGES
12.4 CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES THAT ARE NOT DETERMINISTIC
12.5 tR(k) GRAMMARS
REFERENCES
13.1 DEFINITIONS
13.2 RESTRICTED TYPES OF STACK AUTOMATA
13.3 THE POWER OF TWO-WAY STACK AUTOMATA
13.4 THE POWER OF ONE-WAY STACK AUTOMATA
13.5 RECURSlVENESS OF STACK AUTOMATA 207
13.5 RECURSIVENESS OF STACK AUTOMATA
13.6 CLOSURE PROPERTIES
14.2 POST'S CORRESPONDENCE PROBLEM
14.3 A QUESTION CONCERNING CONTEXT-SENSITIVE LANGUAGES
14.4 UNSOLVABLE QUESTIONS FOR CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES
14.5 AMBIGUITY IN CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
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Formal Languages and Their Relation to Automata --- Hopcroft and Ullman

Formal Languages and Their Relation to Automata --- Hopcroft and Ullman

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Published by: Aditya Narayan Singha on Feb 18, 2012
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