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Ulasan Jurnal

Ulasan Jurnal

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Published by ummieahyar
Jurnal Sejarah Australasia
Jurnal Sejarah Australasia

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Categories:Types, Reviews, Art
Published by: ummieahyar on Feb 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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TRADITIONAL ABORIGINAL MUSICAboriginal people throughout most of Australia believe that inthe beginning of time, in the Dreaming, there were no visiblelandmarks; the world was flat. As time progressed, creaturesemerged from the ground and had the power to change at willfrom their animal to their human form.The kangaroo ancestor may now be described, in songs particularly, as the kangaroo; the form of his life essence is amatter of little consequence. These original ancestral beingscreated all the features of the landscape in the area in whichtheir lives were spent, and also populated the entire regionconcerned. By their actions they laid down the rules of conductfor all their offspring.Throughout their lives on earth they left inseminating powers in the soil; they also created, andtaught to others, many songs including those recounting the history of their own lives, songs for healing thewounded and the sick, injuring the enemy, including rain, arresting the flood, or causing the wind to turn back.The inseminating powers left by these ancestors are doubly important to the present people: first because the propogation of their group is dependent on this power to create human offspring in the likeliness of the humanelements of the ancestor; secondly because the food source of the group is dependent on this power of eachancestor to ensure the plentiful supply of recreated forms of the animal or plant element of the ancestor's being.These powers become most accessible to the present inhabitants of the area on those occasions when the spiritof a particular ancestor is drawn towards his own identification marks of the song, acts and designs which heoriginally created and which have been meticulously preserved ever since.SONGS OF THE DREAMTIMEA song is sung as a series comprising many short verses, each of which tells about a particular event or placeassociated with the ancestor; or the performance may be a full ceremonial one which includes portrayal of relevant events in the performance of dances accompanied by the singing of the appropriate verses.The song associated with any one totemic "line" will have the one melodic form throughout. This means, in
the case of very long "lines" of songs, where the ancestor is reputed to have crossed thousands of miles of territory, that the characteristic melodic form will be found in areas with different languages and musicaltechniques.Because of the latter differences, an outside observer may well fail to recognise extreme sections of the onesong-line as conforming to the same musical pattern, but that they do conform has been repeatedly stressed by performers and shown by a number of detailed analyses. The concept differs from our experience of melodicsameness; it consists of repetitions of sections of melody for a set proportion of the time the total verse takesto perform.Because this technique allows flexibility in those areas of musical expression which tend to change from onetribe to another, the basic information can be kept intact event though the total history may be retained,section by section, in many different tribal areas.This means that, even when a visitor from afar is unable to understand the language that the locals are using ina song, he can determine, from the musical structure, to which totemic line the song belongs.And, because his own totemic song has been very strong conditioning agent in the total processes of hiseducation to adult status in the community, the recognition of his own song in another area will have verydeep significance. These history songs link the time long past with the present; the singer is part of acontinuum; he is reliving events of another era, and is yet part of them.
Masyarakat dan Kesenian Aborigin Australia
 Artikel yang ditulis oleh Penelope Lynne Coutas ini memaparkan kesenian Aborigin iaitugolongan masyarakat asli Australia. Ia menerangkan tentang cara bagaimana masyarakat  Aborigin mempersembahkan kesenian mereka. Dalam aspek kesenian yang dibincangkan,penulis lebih memfokuskan kepada elemen muzik dan tarian. Artikel ini turut melihat kesenianyang berasal daripada Dreamtime (masa mimpi) atau Dreaming yang menjadi sumberkesenian Aborigin. Penulisan menganggap artikel ini sebagai satu dorongan kepada pembacasupaya lebih berminat untuk mengetahui tentang masyarakat dan kesenian Aborigin. Artikel yang bertajuk Masyarakat dan Kesenian Aborigin Australia ini menceritakankesenian masyarakat Aborigin, konsep kesenian di peringkat awal, alatan yang digunakan serta
perkembangannya dari dahulu hingga sekarang. Selain itu, penulis cuba mengutarakanperbezaan kesenian tersebut antara dahulu dan sekarang. Bagaimana kedatangan bangsaEropah ke Australia telah memberi kesan serba sedikit terhadap kesenian tersebut serta nilaihidup yang diamalkan. Walau bagaimanapun penulis cuba memaparkan bahawa dewasa ini,kesenian masyarakat Aborigin mula diterima melalui usaha-usaha masyarakat Australiamemartabatkan kesenian tersebut dengan mewujudkan kursus tentang masyarakat Aborigin dihampir semua universiti seluruh negara.
 Artikel ini membincangkan tentang masyarakat dan kesenian Aborigin yang disifatkanoleh penulis sebagai satu kesenian kuno di Ocenia. Ia memperkenalkan latar belakang Aborigin Australia yang dikatakan berasal dari Asia Tenggara ketika mana Tanah Australia bersatudengan pulau Irian Jaya. Menurut penulis, kebudayaan Aborigin banyak dipengaruhi olehpersekitaran tempat tinggal mereka iaitu benua Australia. Mereka amat dipengaruhi oleh unsuralam iaitu pemandangan alam, binatang dan sebagainya. Puak-puak Aborigin juga tersebar ditanah besar Australia dan membentuk suku kaum yang pelbagai. Mereka berbeza dalam aspekorganisasi sosial, kebudayaan dan bahasa. Oleh sebab itu, tarian, muzik, sistem kekeluargaan,lukisan, upacara-upacara ritual dan hiburan juga turut berbeza antara satu suku dengan sukuyang lain.Walau bagaimanapun, menurut penulis terdapat satu persamaan utama dalam kalanganmereka iaitu Dreamtime (masa mimpi) atau Dreaming. Dreamtime ini adalah terjemahankonsep Aborigin yang berkaitan dengan kisah penciptaan alam menurut versi Aborigin. Konsepini adalah cara yang dipakai orang Aborigin untuk menjelaskan hidup dan bagaimana duniadilahirkan. Menurut penulis, Dreaming adalah pusat kehidupan, kebudayaan dan kesenianorang Aborigin karena konsep itu menentukan kepercayaan dan hubungannya dengan semuaciri-ciri dunia. Penulis membandingkan konsep kesenian masyarakat tradisional Aborigindengan konsep kesenian masyarakat Eropah. Dalam masyarakat Aborigin menurut penulis,aktiviti seperti tarian, nyanyian, gambaran pasir, membuat perabot atau menenun bakulsemuanya dianggap sebagai satu aktiviti dan ini berlawanan dengan masyarakat Eropah yangmembahagikan kesenian kepada dua, iaitu seni dan seniman Art and Design. Orang Aboriginamat mementingkan muzik dan tarian. Muzik dan tarian membawa maksud tetap dalam

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