(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 2012
power penalties are very large. The effects of opticalinterference have been included in the performance analysis of VLC high data rate transmission systems by considering thatthe optical interference power is proportional to the averagesurface area on the PD. Actually, the sun light produces thehighest levels of power spectral density around the wavelengtharea of visible light, therefore, it is the major source of opticalinterference on the receiver PD. Moreover, the wavelength of the other artificial ambient lights (such as, incandescent lightsand fluorescent lights) and the wavelength of the transmittedvisible light overlap in some area. Thereby shot noise andinterference are induced.The optical interference induces a power penalty that insome cases may be very large. Therefore, optical filtering isused in most systems to overcome some of the problemsproduced by the ambient light interference. The higherefficiency of the optical filter is achieved for sunlightinterference reduction due to the differences in the opticalspectrum of each light source [9-10]. Usually, optical filterincludes two types, long-pass filter and band-pass filter (orinterference filters). The use of optical filters reduces theamount of ambient light that reaches the PD, thus reducing theundesirable effects. The transmission gain obtained by the useof an optical filter depends on its efficiency in attenuating theambient light while keeping intact the transmitted signal.Clearly, interference (band-pass) optical filters are moreefficient in that operation, provided that the transmitted signalis not attenuated as well.
B.
PIN PD Receiver
The front-end of PIN PD receiver is constructed from anoptical bandpass filter, a concentrator, a positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) silicon PD, and a preamplifier. Optical filtercould reduce the optical interference without the bandpasswavelength at visible light spectrum but it could not eliminatethe interference light that are over the same wavelength asdesired light. The total fraction of power transmitted throughthe filter, assuming lossless dielectrics, is given by:
2 21
1( ) 1 ( )2
TE TM
T
(1)
where the reflection coefficients
ρ
TE
and
ρ
TM
are defined by thefollowing set of recursive equations [11]
—
[13]
1 21 2
N N
(2)
,,
/cos, {2,..., }cos
k k k k k
n for TE N k K n for TM
(3)
11
cos sin, {2,..., }cos sin
k k k k k k k k k k
jN N k K N j
(4)
111
sin ( sin ) , {2,..., }
k k k k
nk K n
(5)
Here, θ
k
is the angle made by the light ray as it passes from
medium k to medium k + 1, η
k
is the effective complex valued
index ―seen‖ by the light wave as it enters medium k, and β
k
=2
p
cos(θ
k
)n
k
d
k
⁄ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the light
in avacuum [11
]. Starting with η
k
= N
k
, (4) can be applied
recursively to arrive at η
2
, which when substituted into (2)
yields ρ
TE
or ρ
TM
, depending on the initialization of the {N
k
} aseither TE or TM in (3).A PIN silicon PD is suitable for the outdoor environmentbecause of its fast switching capability. Regarding thepreamplifier, we design a low noise field-effect-transistor(FET)-based transimpedance inside [14]. So the total receivednoise variance is the sum of contributions from the shot noiseand thermal noise, given by [14]:
2 2 22 23
222 2 3
82 {16}
total shot thermalk bgk m
pkT qgP I B hAI Bg p kT Gh A I Bg
s s s
(6)
where the first term is shot noise, and second term is thermalnoise variance.
q
is the electronic charge (1.6×10
-19
C), and B isthe equivalent noise bandwidth corresp
onding to the data rate. γ
is the O/E conversion efficiency, and P
bg
is the optical power of the background light, which varies with time and reaches itspeak at noon. T
k
is the absolute temperature of the environment,g is the open-
loop voltage gain, η is
the fixed capacitance of thePD per unit area,
A
is the physical area of the PD, Г is the FET
channel noise factor, g
m
is the FET transconductance, k isBoltzmann's constant. We defined the noise bandwidth factorI
2
=0.562 following [15-16], and the noise bandwidth factorI
3
=0.0868. We choose the average temperature and backgroundnoise power according to the time of day from [17], and choosethe other parameter values of the referred symbols from [15-16]and list them in Table
Ⅰ
.Sun light produces interference due to the time variationson its intensity as shown in Fig. 1. In the simulation as depictedin Fig. 1, the proposed receiver including PIN PD can signi-ficantly reduce the optical interference from the sun light.When the transmitted date rate is 10 Mbps, the PIN receivercan reduce nearly 10 dBm interference power as compared tothe original sunlight power without handpass filter. Thereforethe simulation result as shown in Fig. 1 can illustrates thatoptical handpass filter is effectively used to reduce the opticalinterference noise with the different wavelength to desiredlights.
TABLE I. P
ARAMETERS FOR
O
PTICAL INTERFERENCE REDUCTIONCALCULATION
.open-loop voltage gain, g 10
fixed capacitance, η
112 [pF/cm
2
]FET transconductance, g
m
30 [mS]Noise bandwidth factor, I
2
I
2
=0.562Noise bandwidth factor, I
3
I
3
=0.0868
FET channel noise factor, Г
1.5Data rate, R
b
10, 50 [Mbit/s]
2http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500