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01 Paper 26121101 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp.1-6

01 Paper 26121101 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp.1-6

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 2012
Adaptive Optical PIC Applied in VLC For Multi-userAccess Interference Reduction
Peixin, Li
Department of Electronics and Radio EngineeringKyung Hee UniversitySuwon, Koreapeixin@khu.ac.kr
Ying Yi
Department of Electronics and Radio EngineeringKyung Hee UniversitySuwon, Koreayiying@khu.ac.kr 
 Abstract
 — 
Optical wireless data transmission systems for indoorapplication are usually affected by optical interference inducedby sun light and artificial ambient lights. This paper presents acharacterization of the optical interference produced in visiblelight communication (VLC) systems and proposes an effectivescheme to solve it. Regarding the sun light noise and someartificial light noises reduction, the common method is to adaptthe optical bandpass filter which can distinguish the wavelengthbetween interference lights and information lights. However, forsome photo-electric systems, the visible lights from thetransmitters occupy the same wavelength range, in this case, theoptical bandpass filter would not reduce the interference noisefrom the other user, for example, the optical interference causedby multi-user access of the optical medium. Therefore, weproposed a novel scheme, adaptive optical parallel interferencecancellation (AOPIC) to reduce the multiple access interference(MAI) and multiple user interference (MUI) induced by multi-user access of the optical medium, the conventional parallelinterference cancellation (PIC) is analyzed as the comparison.Through the simulation results, we can conclude that the AOPICscheme shows much better bit error rate (BER) performancethan the conventional PIC with the increasing number of user.
 Keywords-component; AOPIC; MAI; MUI;MC-CDMA
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Recently, visible light communication (VLC) systems haveattracted attentions due to the growing progress in the field of visible light technology [1]. Visible light has several attractivefeatures distinct from those of radio frequency (RF) andinfrared (IR) [2]. Though both LED and laser diodes (LD) areusually used as optical sources, LEDs are preferred as strongcandidates for the next generation lighting technology [3] forseveral reasons including fewer safety concerns, a relativelylong useful life time, and a wider emission angle than those of LDs [4]. As an emitter for optical wireless communication,LED lights emit visible rays as the medium of optical datatransmission. Nevertheless, with the development of VLCsystems, both the industrial and scientific communities haverecognized that visible light also can be used in the high datarate transmission systems, since it has the following advantagescompared to those of RF:
 
VLC is harmless to our health.
 
A friendly user interface.
 
A lighting device is used as a transmitter without anytraces of embellishment in the wireless communicationenvironment.
 
The visible light spectrum does not occupy the radiofrequency spectrum; therefore the electromagneticinterference (EMI) can be avoided by VLC.VLC is suitable for high-speed data transmission, especiallyin an indoor environment. Though VLC system has distinctadvantages as mentioned above, the performance of VLC islimited by several aspects, for example, an inevitable issue isthe optical interference noise that induced by both natural andartificial light on the receiving photodiode (PD) and the opticalinterference from the multi-user access of the optical medium.In addition, few studies have examined the effects of opticalinterference from the multi-user access of the optical medium.Actually, in the realistic communication environment,numerous users transmitting signals are inevitable existing,Motivated by this, we investigate the utilization of Multi-Carrier (MC)-code division multiple access (CDMA)technology in VLC system. However, we also found that theinterference signals from the other users will cause the multi-user interference (MUI) and multi-access interference (MAI)that have a significant impact on the MC-CDMAcommunication performance. We further proposed an effectivescheme, AOPIC, to reduce both MAI and MUI induced bymulti-user access of the optical medium, the conventionalparallel interference cancellation (PIC) is analyzed as thecomparison. Our essential target is to improve the end-to-endoptical wireless communication performance.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. InSection
, the solution scheme for the natural light noise isdescribed, and the performance comparisons and analyses aregiven for the proposed system using the AOPIC technique anda typical PIC technique through computer simulations inSection
. Section
provides the concluding remarks.II.
 
N
ATURAL LIGHT NOISE REDUCTION
 
 A.
 
Sunlight interference
Sunlight that produces interference to the desired lights isthe dominant noise source to induce power penalties in theperformance of transmission systems [5-8], and usually this
1http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 2012
power penalties are very large. The effects of opticalinterference have been included in the performance analysis of VLC high data rate transmission systems by considering thatthe optical interference power is proportional to the averagesurface area on the PD. Actually, the sun light produces thehighest levels of power spectral density around the wavelengtharea of visible light, therefore, it is the major source of opticalinterference on the receiver PD. Moreover, the wavelength of the other artificial ambient lights (such as, incandescent lightsand fluorescent lights) and the wavelength of the transmittedvisible light overlap in some area. Thereby shot noise andinterference are induced.The optical interference induces a power penalty that insome cases may be very large. Therefore, optical filtering isused in most systems to overcome some of the problemsproduced by the ambient light interference. The higherefficiency of the optical filter is achieved for sunlightinterference reduction due to the differences in the opticalspectrum of each light source [9-10]. Usually, optical filterincludes two types, long-pass filter and band-pass filter (orinterference filters). The use of optical filters reduces theamount of ambient light that reaches the PD, thus reducing theundesirable effects. The transmission gain obtained by the useof an optical filter depends on its efficiency in attenuating theambient light while keeping intact the transmitted signal.Clearly, interference (band-pass) optical filters are moreefficient in that operation, provided that the transmitted signalis not attenuated as well.
 B.
 
PIN PD Receiver 
The front-end of PIN PD receiver is constructed from anoptical bandpass filter, a concentrator, a positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) silicon PD, and a preamplifier. Optical filtercould reduce the optical interference without the bandpasswavelength at visible light spectrum but it could not eliminatethe interference light that are over the same wavelength asdesired light. The total fraction of power transmitted throughthe filter, assuming lossless dielectrics, is given by:
2 21
1( ) 1 ( )2
TE T
 
(1)
where the reflection coefficients
 ρ
TE 
and
 ρ
TM 
are defined by thefollowing set of recursive equations [11]
 — 
[13]
1 21 2
 N  N 
 
 
(2)
 
,,
 /cos, {2,..., }cos
k k
n for T N k n for T
 
(3)
 
11
cos sin, {2,..., }cos sin
k k k k k k k
 jN  N k  N j
 
(4)
 
111
sin ( sin ) , {2,..., }
k
nk n
 
(5)
 
Here, θ
is the angle made by the light ray as it passes from
medium k to medium k + 1, η
is the effective complex valued
index ―seen‖ by the light wave as it enters medium k, and β
=2
 p
cos(θ
)n
d
 
 ⁄ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the light
in avacuum [11
]. Starting with η
= N
, (4) can be applied
recursively to arrive at η
2
, which when substituted into (2)
yields ρ
TE 
 
or ρ
TM 
, depending on the initialization of the {N
} aseither TE or TM in (3).A PIN silicon PD is suitable for the outdoor environmentbecause of its fast switching capability. Regarding thepreamplifier, we design a low noise field-effect-transistor(FET)-based transimpedance inside [14]. So the total receivednoise variance is the sum of contributions from the shot noiseand thermal noise, given by [14]:
2 2 22 23
222 2 3
82 {16}
total shot thermalbgm
 pkT qgP I B hAI Bg p kT Gh A I Bg
s s s
 
(6)
 
where the first term is shot noise, and second term is thermalnoise variance.
q
is the electronic charge (1.6×10
-19
C), and B isthe equivalent noise bandwidth corresp
onding to the data rate. γ
is the O/E conversion efficiency, and P
bg
is the optical power of the background light, which varies with time and reaches itspeak at noon. T
is the absolute temperature of the environment,g is the open-
loop voltage gain, η is
the fixed capacitance of thePD per unit area,
 A
 
is the physical area of the PD, Г is the FET
channel noise factor, g
m
is the FET transconductance, k isBoltzmann's constant. We defined the noise bandwidth factorI
2
=0.562 following [15-16], and the noise bandwidth factorI
3
=0.0868. We choose the average temperature and backgroundnoise power according to the time of day from [17], and choosethe other parameter values of the referred symbols from [15-16]and list them in Table
.Sun light produces interference due to the time variationson its intensity as shown in Fig. 1. In the simulation as depictedin Fig. 1, the proposed receiver including PIN PD can signi-ficantly reduce the optical interference from the sun light.When the transmitted date rate is 10 Mbps, the PIN receivercan reduce nearly 10 dBm interference power as compared tothe original sunlight power without handpass filter. Thereforethe simulation result as shown in Fig. 1 can illustrates thatoptical handpass filter is effectively used to reduce the opticalinterference noise with the different wavelength to desiredlights.
TABLE I. P
ARAMETERS FOR
O
PTICAL INTERFERENCE REDUCTIONCALCULATION
.open-loop voltage gain, g 10
fixed capacitance, η
112 [pF/cm
2
]FET transconductance, g
m
30 [mS]Noise bandwidth factor, I
2
I
2
=0.562Noise bandwidth factor, I
3
I
3
=0.0868
FET channel noise factor, Г
1.5Data rate, R
b
10, 50 [Mbit/s]
2http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 2012
Figure 1. Optical power of interference noise over the day and the reductioneffects by the proposed receiver for different transmission data rate.
III.
 
P
ROPOSED
S
YSTEM
M
ODEL
 
 A.
 
 MC-CDMA
Different from the frequency division multiple access(FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA),conventional CDMA techniques use spread codes to identifyeach user separately, however, all users in a CDMA systeminterfere with each other. Take an example of MC-CDMA,MC-CDMA is a combination access techniques of CDMA andorthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) [18].Regarding the signals from the other user, it is alwaysconsidered as noise, for example, MAI and MUI. Theseinterferences cause communication performance degradationand limit the capacity of CDMA systems. ConventionalCDMA systems independently detect each user in parallelusing a matched filter which consists of the unique spreadingcode used by that user. In the MC-CDMA, the transmittedsignal of the
-th user is given by:
M, , ,1
(t) = 2 ( ) ( )cos(2 )
k k m k m k m k mm
P b t c t f
s
 
 
(7)
 
where M is the total number of sub-carriers, P
k,m
represents thetransmitted power over
m
-th sub-carrier for the
-th user. Thesubcarriers in MC-CDMA are orthogonal over the chipduration, hence,
m
-th sub-carrier frequency is f 
m
=f 
0
+
m
 /T
c
,where T
c
 
is chip duration. θ
k,m
is the phase angle introduced in
the carrier modulation process which distributes over [0, 2π].
b
k,m
(t) and c
(t) are the data sequence and spreading waveform,respectively, given as follows:
, ,
( ) ( )( ) ( )
k m k m b sik k c ci
b t b t ic t c t i

 
(8)
 
where b
k,m
and c
are independent random variables with equalprobability of +1 or -
1. While П
b
is the rectangular symbolwaveform that is defined over the symbol duration T
s
, and П
c
isthe rectangular chip waveform over the interval [0, T
c
].We consider K asynchronous MC-CDMA users, all of whom have the same number of subcarriers M and the samespreading factor. Because the carrier frequency of visible lightis very high, the multipath fading can be ignored in the opticalchannels [19]. Consequently, the received signals can bewritten as:
K M, ,1 1,
(t) = 2 ( ) ( )cos(2 ) ( )
k m k m k k k mm k m
r P b t c  f t n
 
(9)
 
where n(t) is the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).
τ
isthe time delay for the
-
th user. φ
k,m
express the uniform
random variables over [0, 2π].
,
k m
P
is the received power, therelationship between received power and transmitted power aregiven by:
 
, ,2
1( ) cos ( ) cos2
nk m k m s
nP P A T G
  
 
(10)
 
Where
 A
is the physical area of PD,
is the distance betweenthe emitter and the receiver,
s
(Ψ)
is the gain of the opticalfilter,
Ψ 
is the angle of incidence, and G is the opticalconcentrator gain [20], as shown as follows:
 
22
sin
c
nG
 
 
(11)
 
where n is the material refractive index and Ψ
c
denotes half of the concentrator FOV, usually
Ψc
≤π/2.
 The sampled output of the match filter for the k-user intypical MC-CDMA systems can be expressed as follows:
,0,0K M, ,1 1,
(t) = (t) ( )cos(2 )( )cos(2 )[ 2 ( )( )cos(2 ) ( )]
Tck k m k mTck m k mk m k m k mk k m k m
r r c t f t dc t f P b c t f t n t d
 
 
(12)
 
If the time delay is limited in a small value, the (12) can bewritten as:
M K M, , , ,1 1 1,0
(t) 2 ( ) 2 ( )( ) ( )cos(2 )
k k m k m j m j m kjm j m j Tck m k m
r P b t P b c t n t f t d
 
(13)
 
(t)
consists of three terms. The first is the desired signalwhich gives the sign of the information bit b
. The second termis the result of the MAI, and the last is due to noise. The cross-correlation of the spreading codes between k-user and j-user is:
0
( ) ( )
Tckj k j
c t c t dt 
 
(14)
 
3http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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