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03 Paper 31101128 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 14-21

03 Paper 31101128 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 14-21

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Network Intrusion DetectionTypes and Computation
Purvag Patel, Chet Langin, Feng Yu, and Shahram RahimiSouthern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, USA
—Our research created a network Intrusion DetectionMath (ID Math) consisting of two components: (1) a way of specifying intrusion detection types in a manner which is moresuitable for an analytical environment; and (2) a computationalmodel which describes methodology for preparing intrusion de-tection data stepwise from network packets to data structures ina way which is appropriate for sophisticated analytical methodssuch as statistics, data mining, and computational intelligence.We used ID Math in a production Self-Organizing Map (SOM)intrusion detection system named ANNaBell as well as in theSOM+ Diagnostic System which we developed.
 Index Terms
—Computational intelligence, Data Mining, IDMath, Intrusion Detection Types, Log Analysis
I. I
Every hacker in the world is ones neighbor on the In-ternet, which results in attack defense and detection beingpervasive both at home and work. Although hundreds of papers have been written on a large variety of methods of intrusion detection—from log analysis, to packet analysis,statistics, data mining, and sophisticated computational intel-ligence methods—and even though similar data structures areused by the various types of intrusion analysis, apparently littlehas been published on a methodical mathematical descriptionof how data is manipulated and perceived in network intrusiondetection from binary network packets to more manageabledata structures such as vectors and matrices.We developed a comprehensive methodology of informationsecurity Intrusion Detection Math (ID Math) which overhaulsconcepts of intrusion detection including a new model of intrusion detection types and a computational model created inorder to lay a foundation for data analysis. Our intrusion de-tection types are necessary, complete, and mutually exclusive.They facilitate
com-parisons of intrusion detection methods and provide the abilityto focus on different kinds of intrusion detection research. Ourcomputational model converts intrusion detection data frompacket analysis step-by-step to sophisticated computationalintelligent methods. These concepts of ID Math were imple-mented in a production Self-Organizing Map (SOM) intrusiondetection system named ANNaBell and were introduced inpublication as part of the SOM+ Diagnostic System in [1].Section II describes background and literature. We describethe new types of local network intrusion detection in sectionIII, and we propose the network intrusion detection computa-tion model in section IV. The conclusion is in section V.II. B
Intrusion detection is the process of identifying and respond-ing to malicious activity targeted at computing and networkingsources [2]. Over the years, types of intrusion detection havebeen labeled in various linguistic terms, with often vagueor overlapping meanings. Not all researchers have used thesame labels with the same meanings. To demonstrate the needfor consistent labeling of intrusion types, previous types of intrusion detection are listed below in order to show the varietyof types of labeling that have been used in the past.Denning [3] in 1986 referred to intrusion detection methodswhich included profiles, anomalies, and rules. Her profilingincluded metrics and statistical models. She referred to misusein terms of insiders who misused privileges.Young in 1987 [4] defined two types of monitors: appear-ance monitors and behavior monitors, the first performingstatic analysis of systems to detect anomalies and the secondexamining behavior.Lunt [5] in 1988 referred to the misuse of insiders; thefinding of abnormal behavior by determining departures fromhistorically established norms of behavior; a priori rules; andusing expert system technology to codify rules obtained fromsystem security officers. A year later, in 1989, Lunt mentionedknowledge-based, statistical, and rule-based intrusion detec-tion. In 1993, she referred to model-based reasoning [6].Vaccaro and Liepins [7] in 1989 stated that misuse manifestsitself as anomalous behavior. Hellman, Liepins, and Richards[8] in 1992 stated that computer use is either normal or misuse.Denault, et al, [9] in 1994 referred to detection-by-appearanceand detection-by-behavior. Forrest, et al, [10] in 1994 saidthere were three types: activity monitors, signature scanners,and file authentication programs.Intrusion detection types began converging on two maintypes in 1994: misuse and anomaly. Crosbie and Spafford [11]defined misuse detection as watching for certain actions beingperformed on certain objects. They defined anomaly detectionas deviations from normal system usage patterns. Kumar andSpafford [12] also referred to anomaly and misuse detection in1994. Many other researchers, too numerous to mention themall, have also referred to misuse and anomaly as the two maintypes of intrusion detection, from 1994 up to the present time.However, other types of intrusion detection continue to bementioned. Ilgun, Kemmerer, and Porras [13] in 1995 referredto four types: Threshold, anomaly, rule-based, and model-based. Esmaili, Safavi-Naini, and Pieprzyk [14] in 1996 saidthe two main methods are statistical and rule-based expertsystems.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201214http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
Fig. 1. A Local Landline NIDS
Debar, Dacier, and Wespi, [15] in 1999 referred to twocomplementary trends: (1) The search for evidence based onknowledge; and, (2) the search for deviations from a modelof unusual behavior based on observations of a system duringa known normal state. The first they referred to as misusedetection, detection by appearance, or knowledge-based. Thesecond they referred to as anomaly detection or detection bybehavior. Bace [16] in 2000 described misuse detection aslooking for something bad and anomaly detection as lookingfor something rare or unusual. Marin-Blazquez and Perez [17]in 2008 said that there are three main approaches: signature,anomaly, and misuse detection.While descriptive, these various labels over time are incon-sistent and do not favor an analytical discussion of network intrusion detection. Not all of them are necessary, they are notmutually exclusive, and as individual groups they have notbeen demonstrated as being complete. Rather than arbitratewhich of these labels should be used and how they shouldbe defined, new labels have been created to describe types of local network intrusion detection in a manner which favors ananalytical environment.III. LLNIDS T
The new types are explained below, but first some ter-minology needs to be stated in order to later describe thetypes. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is software oran appliance that detects intrusions. A Network IntrusionDetection System (NIDS) is an appliance that detects anintrusion on a network. In this research, network means alandline network. Local network intrusion detection refers tothe instant case of network intrusion detection.Figure 1 illustrates the location of a Local Landline Network Intrusion Detection System (LLNIDS) as used in this research.The LLNDS in Figure 1 is represented by the rounded box inthe center labelled “Local NIDS”. It is an IDS on a landlinebetween a local network and the Internet. The point of viewof this research is from inside the LLNIDS. Users on the localnetwork may have other ways of accessing the Internet thatbypass the LLNIDS, such as wireless and dialup. This researchis restricted to the LLNIDS as described here.Examples of detection which are not Local Landline Net-work Intrusion Detection (LLNID) include detection on thehost computer, detection by someone else out on the Internet,or detection by someone out in the world, such as someonewitnessing a perpetrator bragging in a bar. This researchconcerns LLNID and the new types described in this paperrefer to LLNID. A network intrusion in this context means
Fig. 2. Types of Intrusions for LLNIDS
one or more transmissions across the network that involvesan intrusion. A single Internet transmission is often called apacket. Therefore, using this terminology, the physical mani-festation of an intrusion on a network is one or more packets,and intrusion detection is the detection of these packets thatconstitute intrusions. In this context, intrusion detection issimilar to data mining. Intrusion detection research needs amodel of types of intrusions and types of intrusion detectionthat benefits analysis of methods. This research focuses onlyon LLNID. These are the proposed types of intrusions for thespecial case of local landline network intrusion detection thatfacilitate intrusion detection research analysis in the LLNIDcontext:
Type 1 Intrusion
: An intrusion which can be positivelydetected in one or more packets in transit on the localnetwork in a given time period.
Type 2 Intrusion
: An intrusion for which one or moresymptoms (only) can be detected in one or more packetsin transit on the local network in a given time period.
Type 3 Intrusion
: An intrusion which cannot be detectedin packets in transit on the network in a given time period.These three types of intrusions are necessary for analyticalresearch in order to indicate and compare kinds of intrusions.A positive intrusion is different than only a symptom of anintrusion because immediate action can be taken on the firstwhereas further analysis should be taken on the second. Bothof these are different than intrusions which have been missedby an LLNIDS. To show that these three types are mutuallyexclusive and are complete for a given time period, considerall of the intrusions for a given time period, such as a 24-hourday. The intrusions which were positively identified by theLLNIDS are Type1 intrusions. Of the remaining intrusions,the ones for which the LLNIDS found symptoms are Type2. Here the hypothesis is that the LLNIDS can only find anintrusion positively or only one or more symptoms are found.No other results can be returned by the LLNIDS. Therefore,the remaining intrusions are Type 3, which are intrusions notdetected by the LLNIDS. No other types of intrusions in thiscontext are possible.Figure 2 is a diagram that illustrates the types of intrusionsas described above. An intrusion is either Type 1, Type 2, Type3, or it is not an intrusion.Those were the types of intrusions. Next are the types of intrusion detection. There are three types of network intrusiondetection that correspond to the three types of intrusions inthe LLNID context:
Type 1 Network Intrusion Detection
: A Type 1 Intrusionis detected in a given time period.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201215http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
Type 2 Network Intrusion Detection
: One or more symp-toms (only) of a Type 2 Intrusion are detected in a giventime period.
Type 3 Network Intrusion Detection
: No intrusion isdetected in a given time period.Admittedly, Type 3 is not a detection but the lack of detection. It is included because these three types of detectioncorrespond to the three types of intrusions and Type 3 IntrusionDetection facilitates analysis of intrusion detection methods.Examples of Type 3 Intrusion Detection are nothing wasdetected; no attempt was made at detection; an intrusionoccurred but was not detected by the LLNIDS; and, nointrusion occurred. All of these have the same result: therewas no detection of an intrusion by the LLNIDS.Each of the three network intrusion detection types isnecessary to describe all of the types of intrusion detection.A positive detection of an intrusion is different than just asymptom of an intrusion because a positive detection canbe immediately acted upon while a symptom indicates thatfurther analysis is needed. Both of these are different thanintrusions that are missed by network intrusion detection. Toshow that these types are mutually exclusive and complete fora given time period, consider an LLNIDS looking at network packets for a given time period, say a 24-hour day. For allpackets that the LLNIDS determines positively indicates anintrusion the LLNIDS has accomplished Type 1 intrusiondetection. Of the remaining packets, for each packet that theLLNIDS determines is a symptom of an intrusion the LLNIDShas accomplished Type 2 intrusion detection. The remainingpackets represent Type 3 intrusion detection. These three typesof network intrusion detection are complete in this contextbecause they cover all possibilities of intrusion detection. Incommon language, Type 1 is a certainty, Type 2 is a symptom,and Type 3 is an unknown.Those were types of intrusion detection. Next are types of methods and alerts. LLNID methods can be defined in termsof the three intrusion types:
Type 1 NID Method/Alert 
: A method that detects a Type1 Intrusion and an alert that indicates a Type 1 Intrusion.
Type 2 NID Method/Aler
: A method that detects asymptom of a Type 2 Intrusion and an alert that indicatesa symptom (only) of a Type 2 Intrusion.
Type 3 NID Method/Alert 
: A method that does not exist,thus there is no alert.These types of methods and alerts are necessary to differentiatethat some methods are positively correct, other methods onlyindicate symptoms of intrusions, and some methods do notexist. They are mutually exclusive because a local methodeither positively indicates an intrusion (Type 1), it only detectsa symptom of an intrusion (Type 2), or it does not exist (Type3). They are complete because there are no other types of methods in this context.Those were types of methods and alerts. Next are typesof false positives. The term false positive generally has meantthat an intrusion detection system has sent a false alarm. Falsepositives are generally undesirable because the false positiverate of intrusion detection systems can be high and can use up a
Fig. 3. Types of Intrusion Detection for LLNID
lot of seemingly unnecessary, and limited, resources. However,with these new types, the concept of a false positive is differentfor different intrusion detection types in the LLNIDS context.
Type 1 False Positive
: A Type 1 Method produces analarm in the absence of an intrusion.
Type 2 False Positive
: A Type 2 method produces analarm in the absence of an intrusion.
Type 3 False Positive
: Does not exist because no alarmis produced.A Type 1 False Positive indicates a problem with the Type1 method which should be corrected. Type 2 False Positivesare expected because Type 2 Methods do not positively detectintrusions, they only detect symptoms of intrusions. There isno Type 3 False Positive because no detections and alertsare produced for Type 3 Intrusion Detections. These typesof false positive are necessary because they each indicateseparate network intrusion detection issues. Type 1 is a net-work intrusion detection problem which needs to be correctedand Type 2 is expected. The two types of false positive aremutually exclusive and complete because only Type 1 Network Intrusion Detection can produce a Type 1 False Positive andonly Type 2 Network Intrusion Detection can produce a Type2 False Positive. No other types of false positives in thiscontext are possible. Since Type 1 and Type 2 of local network intrusion detection methods are mutually exclusive, these arealso mutually exclusive.Figure 3 is a Venn diagram which illustrates types of intrusion detection in the LLNIDS context. The horizontalline separates intrusions at the top from non-intrusions at thebottom. A Type 1 detection is in the upper left of the circle if it is actually an intrusion or it is in the lower left of the circleif it is a false positive. A Type 2 detection is in the upper rightof the circle if it is actually an intrusion or it is in the lowerright of the circle if it is a false positive. Everything outsideof the circle is Type 3 detection whether it is an intrusion ornot.This typing system allows illustration that empirically mostintrusion detection is not Type 1 (positive detections), but Type2 (symptoms of detections), and Type 3 (missed detections).This differentiation is essential in proceeding in a scientificway for improved intrusion detection.Previously labeled types of intrusion detection do not fitneatly into these three new types. Misuse detection, forexample, in some cases could indicate a definite intrusionand would then be Type 1, or it could indicate only symp-toms of intrusions in other cases and would then be Type2. The comparison of false positives of different methodsof Misuse Detection is an invalid technique unless Type 1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201216http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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