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05 Paper 31121137 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 27-31

05 Paper 31121137 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 27-31

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2012
Denoising Cloud Interference on Landsat SatelliteImage Using Discrete Haar Wavelet Transformation
Candra Dewi
Department of MathematicUniversity of BrawijayaMalang, Indonesiad3w1_c4ndr4@yahoo.com
Mega Satya Ciptaningrum
Department of MathematicUniversity of BrawijayaMalang, Indonesiamegasatya@yahoo.com
Muh Arif Rahman
Department of MathematicUniversity of BrawijayaMalang, Indonesiaarifrahman@ub.ac.id
—Satellite imagery is very useful in informationacquisition of the earth's surface image, especially the earth'sresources. However, in the process of retrieval information fromsatellite imagery is often found barriers that can obscure or evencover the imaging of an area. One of these barriers is a cloud,which result the image that covered with lots of noise. Wavelettransformation was usually used to enhance the image or toeliminate striping noise on satellite image. In this paper is usedDiscrete Haar Wavelet transformation to reduce cloud noise onLandsat TM image. The process includes the Haar Waveletdecomposition of image rows and columns. After that,thresholding process is also applied for de-noising. Thresholdingresults are then reconstructed using the Inverse Discrete HaarWavelet. The method is applied to the variation of the bandimage, the type of thresholding (hard and soft), as well as the sizeof the image convolution. The testing results on the band 1 toband 6 of Landsat TM imagery showed that the lowest errorvalues are calculated by RMSE (Root Mean Square Error)present in band 1. Image signal to noise ratio in band 1 has thehighest value, which means most high-power image signal tonoise. This mean that band 1 has the highest pixel valuesimilarity between whole testing data.
 Keywords; Discrete Haar Wavelet, thresholding, image convolution, Landsat TM 
 Image of the earth surface recording can be interpreted bythe user for the benefit of various fields. In the process of image acquisition by the satellite, sometimes is found noise thatcan reduce the image quality. This disorder is caused by thepresence of such clouds or fog that can obscure or evencovered the satellite during the imaging process [1]. This noisecan interfere the interpretation process therefore the resultsobtained will not be maximal.Each pixel in the satellite image has some digital value(numeric) in accordance with the band of satellite imagery. Forexample is Landsat TM image that has 7 bands. Therefore,each pixel has 7 digital values that are suited to 7 band digitalvalue that is owned. The different characteristic each bandscauses the difference in the ability to detect clouds. In the studythat is performed by Choi and Bindschadler (2004), clouds isvery high reflected in the band 2 (0.52 - 0.60
m).The elimination process of noise in the spatial domain canbe applied directly on image pixels. One of the transformationmethods that can be done on the spatial domain is a power-lawtransformation. While in the frequency domain, the image isbroken into multiple kernels to be processed by the analysis of transformation. Transformations that can be done in thisdomain include Wavelet transformation [3] [4] [5].Transformation performed to obtain information and identifythe original image, by getting its spectrum. Spectrum can beobtained from the image frequency, time, or time-frequencydepend on the type of transformation used [6].It is well known that wavelet transform is a signalprocessing technique which can display the signals on in bothtime and frequency domain. Wavelet transform is superiorapproach to other time-frequency analysis tools because itstime scale width of the window can be stretched to match theoriginal signal, especially in image processing studies.Wavelet transformation can be used to obtain signal both inthe frequency domain and time domain. Wavelet time scalewidth of the window can be stretched to match the originalsignal. Wavelet is a conversion function that can be used tobreak up a function or a signal into different frequencycomponents. These components then can be processed inaccordance with the scale. While the wave is a function of moving up and down in space and time periodically(sinusoidal), wavelet is a limited wave or sometimes is calledas short wave [7].Haar transform uses the Haar scaling function and the Haarwavelet function. Haar wavelet transformation use the Haarbasis functions that is called a wavelet orthonormal [8]. HaarWavelet functions can be expressed in matrix form.In the previous study, wavelet transform is used to sharpenthe cloud-related shadow areas [1]. Beaulieu et al (2003) refinethe resolution of a multi-spectral (MS) image using fusionmethod and the Stationary Wavelet Transform. In the studyperformed by Torres and Infante (2001), wavelet transform isused for denoising stripping noise on satellite imagery. This
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2012
paper applies the Haar wavelet transformation to reduce thenoise cloud on Landsat TM imagery.II.
RESEARCHThe research about the using of wavelet transformation hasbeen done by some researcher. Torres and Infante (2001)present new destriping technique on satellite imagery usingDaubechies wavelets of different orders and was tested on aheavily striped Landsat MSS image. Visual inspection andmeasurement the signal-to-noise ratio showed that the methodproved produce encouraging results in image quality andperformance, overcome some problems commonly found ontraditional destriping techniques and reduce computer timeprocess and storage space.Beaulieu et al, (2003) refine the resolution of a multi-spectral (MS) image by fusion method using a high-resolutionpanchromatic (PAN) image and the Stationary WaveletTransform (SWT). They propose to produce high-resolutionMS image that has nearly the same statistical properties thanthe original multi-spectral image with no blocking imageartifacts. These algorithms are based on the injection of high-frequency components from the PAN image into the MSimage. They prove that pixel-level fusion was a powerfulmethod to refine the spatial resolution of PAN images.Wang et al (2003) present a new approach to eliminate therandom image noises inherent in the microarray imageprocessing procedure using stationary wavelet transform(SWT) and applied on analysis of gene expression. The testingresult on sample microarray images has shown an enhancedimage quality. The results also show that it has a superiorperformance than conventional discrete wavelet transform andwidely used adaptive Wiener filter in this procedure.Elrahman and Elhabiby (2008) developed image sharpeningalgorithm using wavelet to enhance shadow areas of cloud andtested this algorithm on the panchromatic band of Landsat 7ETM satellite sub-scenes. The algorithm is applied locally byboosting the image high frequency content in the shadow areasusing the defected image de-noised wavelet coefficients. Byusing visual and quantitative analysis was found that the abilityto enhance details under shadow areas increased with theincrease in the number of wavelet decomposition levels.Beside, were found that enhancing image quality in the shadowareas could be done using only two or three waveletdecomposition levels.In these previous studies, the using of wavelets on thesatellite image is to sharpen the image and to improve imageresolution. Wang et al (2003) already used wavelet to eliminatethe noise, but is applied to the gene sequence image. In thispaper will be applied discrete Haar wavelet to reduce noise inthe form of clouds on satellite images. Although the discretewavelet transform has a lower performance of the stationarywavelet transform, but its ability to reduce the noise is quitehigh and does not vary with stationary wavelet transform [5].III.
METHODThis application was built to reduce noise on Landsat TMsatellite image using Haar wavelet transformation method. Thelimitation of this system includes:1)
The image used is a grayscale image of type TIFF
The size of the image used is 256x256 orthonormalThe flowchart of noise reduction process is shown Figure 1.The inputs of this application consist of satellite imagery withclouds noise and image without noise. This input image ispresented in grayscale values. Some preprocessing was done tothe noise image to reduce the noise. The image without noise isused as a comparison in the testing process.
Figure 1 Flowchart of noise reduction process
Firstly, noise image is transformed into the frequencydomain using the Haar wavelet transform. The quantizationprocess is then performed using a specific threshold value. Thetransformation process is performed to the n level, where N =2
and N is the size of the image. At each level, the rowtransformation is done in advance through highpass andlowpass filters. After that, is done transformation of thecolumn.The next process is tresholding. This process separatespixels based on the degree of grey level values. The waveletcoefficients which are below the threshold are set to zero andthan take the other values for purposes of reconstruction of thesignal. Threshold used is Hard and Soft Threshold. With
isthe threshold value, hard thresh equation is shown in (1).
ε  ε  
 x x x X 
(1)On the hard threshold, all wavelet coefficients with avalue below a specified threshold are classified as noise andremoved (are set to zero). While the coefficients above the
28http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2012
threshold is classified as signal. In soft thresholding, thewavelet coefficients with a value below the specified thresholdare removed and the wavelet coefficients above the specifiedthreshold are reduced by the threshold value. Thus, this methodreduces the range of wavelet coefficients and signal leveling.Soft threshold was chosen because this procedure does notcause non-continuants at x = ±
. The equation for the softthreshold is shown in (2).
ε  ε  
||,0 ||),|)(|( )(
 x xthresh x xsign  X 
(2)For the determination of threshold values is used equationas in (3).
(3)Where:t = threshold value that is calculated= the variance of datan = number of dataThe equation of variance is shown in (4).
n x x
(4)The last process is the Inverse Haar Wavelet Transform(IHWT) which is the process of passing the image through theinverse filter matrix transformations. This process is contrary tothe decomposition process.IV.
METHODFor testing the result is used Root Mean Square Error(RMSE) and Peak-to-Signal Noise Ratio (PNSR).
 Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)
RMSE is one of the ways to measure the amount of thedifference between the estimated values with actual values bymeasuring the average of error. RMSE is calculated bycomparing the number of errors between the denoising imageand the original image. The lower the RMSE value the smallerthe error calculation has been done. RMSE of digital imagewith size NxM could be calculated using equation as shown in(5).
 N  ji ji f   RMSE 
(5)Where:f(i,j) is pixel value in original imageF(i,j) is the pixel value on reconstruction imageN
is an image size (in pixels)
Peak-to-Signal Noise Ratio (PNSR)
PSNR is the comparison between the maximum possiblesignal strength of a digital signal with the power of noise thataffects on the signal (Alfatwa, 2005). PSNR is defined throughthe signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the level of signalquality. Signal quality is directly proportional to the value of SNR. The larger of the SNR value, the better the quality of thegenerated signal. PSNR values usually range between 20 and40 dB (Alfatwa, 2005). PSNR values can be calculated usingequation as shown in (6). Value of 255 represents the upperlimit value of image pixels.
    
DATAImage that is used in the testing process is Landsat TMsatellite image with each channel has a different sensitivity tothe wavelength. Landsat TM satellite orbital period for takingpictures of the earth's surface is generally performed at least 6months. Satellite imagery from two period of taken picture canbe used as a reference on the interpretation process. Forexample, this study used two images with the same object (theisland of Madura) taken in June 2004 and February 2005. Inthe image taken on 2005 exists cloud covering the particularobject and the image taken on 2004 (with the same object) isused as reference.Preparation of satellite imagery should be done to obtainthe image that is suited to analysis. The original image iscropped to the size of 256 x 256 pixels and converted into
 extention format. In addition, the original image with 7 bands isseparated per-band for used in applications. Details of the dataused are as follows:1)
Landsat image of Madura island, dated June 25, 2004and dated February 4, 2005
Landsat image of Java island, dated June 25, 2004 anddated February 4, 2005Of the two sources of image data was made 2 pieces of testing data with each of the data contained six band image data(bands 1 to 6 / 7) with each size is 256 x 256 pixels.Data I: latitude 7:7:45.66 S and longitude 113:3:12. 43 EData II: latitude 7:39:41.99 S and longitude 112:56:41.87 EVI.
DISCUSSIONSome examples of images resulted from denoising processare visually displayed in
Table I
. The first image shows theresult of denoising on data I (band 1) with convolution 2 (hardthresholding), the second on data II (band 1) with convolution8 (soft thresholding), and the third on data II (band 3) withconvolution 8 (hard thresholding).
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