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14 Paper 30121113 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 80-84

14 Paper 30121113 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 80-84

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, 201
2
 
The Increase Of Network Lifetime ByImplementing The Fuzzy Logic In WirelessSensor Networks
Indrit Enesi
Department of Electronic and TelecommunicationPolytechnic University of TiranaTirana, Albaniaienesi @fti.edu.al
Elma Zanaj
Department of Electronic and TelecommunicationPolytechnic University of TiranaTirana, Albaniaezanaj@fti.edu.al
 
 Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) present a newgeneration of real-time embedded systems with limitedcomputation, energy and memory resources. They arebeing used in a wide variety of applications wheretraditional networking infrastructure is practicallyinfeasible. Appropriate cluster-head node election candrastically reduce the energy consumption enhancing sothe network lifetime. In this paper, a fuzzy logicapproach to cluster-head election is proposed based onthree descriptors - energy, concentration and centralityof nodes. Simulation shows that depending uponnetwork configuration, a substantial increase innetwork lifetime can be accomplished as compared toprobabilistically selecting the nodes as cluster-headsusing only local information.
 Key words — Wireless Sensor Networks, Network-lifetime, Cluster-head, Fuzzy Logic.
1. INTRODUCTION
With the recent advances in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, low power digital circuitry and RF designs, WSNs areconsidered to be one of the potential emergingcomputing technologies, edging closer towardswidespread feasibility [5]. Several useful and variedapplications of WSNs include applications requiringinformation gathering in harsh, inhospitableenvironments, weather and climate monitoring,detection of chemical or biological agent threats,and healthcare monitoring. These applicationsdemand the usage of various equipment includingcameras, acoustic tools and sensors measuringdifferent physical parameters [7]. The energysupply of the sensor nodes is one of the mainconstraints in the design of this type of network [6]. Since it is infeasible to replace batteries onceWSNs are deployed, an important design issue inWSNs is to lessen the energy consumption with theuse of energy conserving hardware, operatingsystems and communication protocols. The energyconsumption can be reduced by allowing onlysome nodes to communicate with the base station.These nodes called cluster-heads collect the datasent by each node in that cluster compressing it andthen transmitting the aggregated data to the basestation [1]. Appropriate cluster-head selection cansignificantly reduce energy consumption andenhance the lifetime of the WSN. In this paper, afuzzy logic approach to cluster-head election is proposed based on three descriptors - energy,concentration and centrality. Simulation shows thatdepending upon network configuration a substantialincrease in network lifetime can be accomplished ascompared to probabilistically selecting the nodes ascluster-heads using only local information. Thereare diverse applications of intelligent techniques inwireless networks [4]. Fuzzy logic control iscapable of making real time decisions, even withincomplete information. We compare our approachto a previously proposed popular cluster-headselection technique called LEACH (LowEnergy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) [1]. LEACHis based on a stochastic model and uses localizedclustering. The nodes select themselves as cluster-heads without the base station processing. Other nodes in the vicinity join the closest cluster-headsand transmit data to them. Simulation results showthat our approach increases the network lifetimeconsiderably as compared to LEACH
2. RELATED WORK
A typical WSN architecture is shown in Figure 1.The nodes send data to the respective cluster-heads,which in turn compresses the aggregated data andtransmits it to the base station.Many proposals have been made to select cluster-heads. In the case of LEACH [1], to become acluster- head, eachnode n chooses arandom number  between 0 and 1. If the number is lessthan the thresholdT(n), the node becomes the cluster-head for the currentround.Fig. 1: WSN
architecture
80http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, 201
2
 
0)(
=
n
The threshold is set at:If 
Gn
 (1)otherwisewhere P is the cluster-head probability, r the number of the current round and G the set of nodes thathave not been cluster-heads in the last 1/P rounds.Several disadvantages are there for selecting thecluster-head using only the local information in thenodes. Firstly, since each node probabilistically decides whether or not to becomethe cluster-head, there might be cases when twocluster-heads are selected in close vicinity of eachother increasing the overall energy depleted in thenetwork. Secondly, the number of cluster-head nodesgenerated is not fixed so in some rounds it may bemore or less than the preferred value. Thirdly, thenode selected can be located near the edges of thenetwork; wherein the other nodes will expend moreenergy to transmit data to that cluster-head.Fourthly, each node has to calculate the thresholdand generate the random numbers in each round,consuming CPU cycles. LEACH-C [2] uses acentralized algorithm and provides another approachto form clusters as well as selecting the cluster-headsusing the simulated annealing technique. In [3] eachnode calculates its distance to the area centroidwhich will recommend nodes close to the areacentroid and not the nodes that is central to a particular cluster, cluster centroid.
3. SYSTEM MODEL
In this paper the cluster-heads are elected by the base station in each round by calculating the chanceeach node has to become the cluster-head byconsidering three fuzzy descriptors, nodeconcentration, energy level in each node and itscentrality with respect to the entire cluster. In our opinion a central control algorithm in the base stationwill produce better cluster-heads since the basestation has the global knowledge about the network.Moreover, base stations are many times more powerful than the sensor nodes, having sufficientmemory, power and storage. In this approachenergy is spent to transmit the location informationof all the nodes to the base station (possibly using aGPS receiver). The operation of this fuzzy cluster-head election scheme is divided into two rounds eachconsisting of a setup and steady state phase similar to LEACH. During the setup phase the cluster-headsare determined by using fuzzy knowledge processingand then the cluster is organized. In the steady state phase the cluster-heads collect the aggregated dataand performs signal processing functions to compressthe data into a single signal. The energy expendedduring transmission and reception for a k bit messageto a distance d between transmitter and receiver nodeis given by:E
Tx
(k, d) = E
elec
* k +
ε
 
amp
*k * d
λ 
(2)E
Rx
(k) = E
elec
* k (3)where,
λ 
is the path loss exponent and
λ 
 
2 .
3.1. Fuzzy Logic Control
The model of fuzzy logic control consists of afuzzifier, fuzzy rules, fuzzy inference engine, and adefuzzifier. We have used the most commonly usedfuzzy inference technique called Mamdani Method[8] due to its simplicity. The process is performed infour steps:• Fuzzification of the input variables energy,concentration and centrality - taking the crisp inputsfrom each of these and determining the degree towhich these inputs belong to each of the appropriatefuzzy sets.• Rule evaluation - taking the fuzzified inputs, andapplying them to the antecedents of the fuzzy rules. Itis then applied to the consequent membershipfunction (Table 1).• Aggregation of the rule outputs - the process of unification of the outputs of all rules.• Defuzzification - the input for the defuzzification process is the aggregate output fuzzy set chance andthe output is a single crisp number.During defuzzification, it finds the point where avertical line would slice the aggregate set chance intotwo equal masses. In practice, the COG (Center oGravity) is calculated and estimated over a sample of  points on the aggregate output membership function,using the following formula:COG = (
Σμ
A
(x) * x) /
Σμ
A(x)
(4)where,
μ
A
is the membership function of set A.
3.2. Expert Knowledge Representation
 Expert knowledge is represented based on thefollowing three descriptors:• Node Energy - energy level available in eachnode, designated by the fuzzy variable energy,• Node Concentration - number of nodes presentin the vicinity, designated by the fuzzy variableconcentration,• Node Centrality - a value which classifies thenodes based on how central the node is to thecluster, designated by the fuzzy variablecentrality.To find the node centrality, the base station selectseach node and calculates the sum of the squareddistances of other nodes from the selected node.Since transmission energy is proportional to d
2
(2),the lower the value of the centrality, the lower the
)1mod(1)(
PPPn
=
81http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, 201
2
 
amount of energy required by the other nodes totransmit the data through that node as cluster-head.The linguistic variables used to represent the nodeenergy and node concentration, are divided into threelevels:
low
,
medium
and
high,
respectively, and thereare three levels to represent the node centrality:
close
,
adequate
and
 far,
respectively. The outcome torepresent the node cluster-head election chance wasdivided into seven levels:
very small
,
small
,
rather small
,
medium
,
rather large
,
large
, and
very large
.The fuzzy rule base currently includes rules like thefollowing: if the
energy
is
high
and the
concentration
is
high
and the
centrality
is
close
then the node’scluster-head election
chance
is
very large
. Thus weused 33 = 27 rules for the fuzzy rule base. We usedtriangle membership functions to represent the fuzzysets
medium
and
adequate
and trapezoid membershipfunctions to represent
low
,
high
,
close
and
 far 
fuzzysets. The membership functions developed and their corresponding linguistic states are represented inTable 1 and Figures 2 through 5.Table 1. Fuzzy rule base.
energy concentration centrality chance1 low low close small2 low low adeq small3 low low far vsmall4 low med close small5 low med adeq small6 low med far small7 low high close rsmall8 low high adeq small9 low high far vsmall10 med low close rlarge11 med low adeq med12 med low far small13 med med close large14 med med adeq med15 med med far rsmall16 med high close large17 med high adeq rlarge18 med high far rsmall19 high low close rlarge20 high low adeq med21 high low far rsmall22 high med close large23 high med adeq rlarge24 high med far med25 high high close vlarge26 high high adeq rlarge27 high high far med
 Legend:
adeq=adequate, med=medium, vsmall=very small,rsmall=rather small, vlarge=very large, rlarge=rather large.
Fig. 2: Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable
energy
 Fig.3: Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable
concentration
 
Fig. 4: Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable
centrality
 
Fig. 5: Fuzzy set for fuzzy variable
chance
 
82http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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