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16 Paper 30121129 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 91-94

16 Paper 30121129 IJCSIS Camera Ready Paper Pp. 91-94

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Published by: ijcsis on Feb 19, 2012
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 Abstract
--
This paper presents detection and elimination of ocular artifact from electroencephalographic data usingstationary wavelet transform. Usually all the biomedical signalsare contaminated with the noise. This noise source increases thedifficulty in analyzing the EEG signal. In this paper we aredealing with the EEG signal contaminated with ocular artifacts.Ocular artifacts are more predominant over other artifacts.Since, these ocular artifacts occupy lower frequencies they aredifficult to eliminate. Stationary wavelet transform and itsinverse are applied in this paper for detection and elimination of ocular artifact.
 Index Terms
--EEG (Electroencephalography), OA (ocularartifact), SWT (Stationary Wavelet Transform) and EOG(Electrooculography).
I. I
NTRODUCTION
 lectroencephalogram is a valuable tool for clinicians innumerous applications, from the diagnosis of neurologicaldisorders, to the clinical monitoring of depth of anesthesia. Eye movement and blink produce electrical signalsaround the eye which spread across the scalp andcontaminates the EEG. These contaminating potentials arecommonly referred to as ocular artifacts (OA’s) [1].At present there are three main methods for artifactprocessing and they are1.
 
Artifact rejection(elimination of an artifactcontaminated section of EEG)2.
 
Artifact minimization (nulling, canceling orsubtracting of artifacts)3.
 
Artifact clustering(grouping of artifacts as aparticular type of “EEG activity”)In artifact rejection method, the epochs contaminated withartifacts (OA) are rejected this leads to substantial loss of valuable data, because of which EEG cannot be completelymonitored and hence cannot diagnose the diseases properly[2].
Shah Aqueel Ahmed, and Dr. Syed Abdul Sattar are with Royal Instituteof Technology & Science, Hyderabad – 501503, India (email:shah_aqueel@rediffmail.com).Dr. D. Elizabath Rani is with Gitam Institute of Engineering &Technology, GITAM University, Vishakapatnam, AP, India.
Artifact clustering is the special case of the artifactrejection, with the advantage that specific methods forrejection of each type of artifact are not required Artifactminimization techniques are preferable in general to artifactrejection techniques for the same artifact, since no loss of datais entailed. Various other methods have been proposed forcorrecting ocular artifacts and are discussed in brief. Otherattempts have been made on different methods based onregression in time domain or frequency domain techniques forremoving OA’s. Regression methods whether in time orfrequency domain depend on having one or more regression(EOG) channel. Also both these methods share an inherentweakness that spread of excitation from eye movements andEEG signal is bidirectional. Therefore regression basedartifact removal eliminates the neural potentials common toreference electrodes and to other frontal electrodes [3].Another class of methods is based on a lineardecomposition of the EEG and EOG leads to sourcecomponents identifying artifactual components and thenreconstructing the EEG without the artifactual components.Principal component analysis (PCA) was introduced toremove the artifacts from the EEG. It outperformed theregression based method. However, PCA cannot completelyseparate OA from EEG, when both the waveforms havesimilar voltage magnitudes.PCA decomposes the lead intouncorrelated, but not necessarily independent components thatare spatially orthogonal and thus it cannot deal higher orderstatistical dependencies. An alternate approach is to useindependent component analysis(ICA),which was developedin the context of blind source separation problems to obtaincomponents that are approximately independent.ICA has beenused to correct for ocular artifacts ,as well as artifactsgenerated by other sources. ICA is an extension of PCA whichnot only decorrelates but can also deal with higher orderstatistical dependencies. ICA algorithms are superior to PCAin removing a wide variety of artifacts from the EEG even inthe case of comparable amplitudes [4].II. W
AVELET
D
ECOMPOSITION
T
ECHNIQUE
 Mathematical transformations are applied to the signals toobtain the further information from that signal that is notreadily available in the raw signal. In this paper we assumethat a time domain signal, as a raw signal and a signal that hasbeen transformed by any of the available mathematical
Detection and Elimination of Ocular Artifactsfrom EEG Data Using Wavelet DecompositionTechnique
Shah Aqueel Ahmed, D .Elizabath Rani, Syed Abdul Sattar
 
E
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201291http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
transformation, as a processed signal. Most of the signals inpractice are time domain signals in their raw format. Thisrepresentation is not always the best representation of thesignal, for most signal processing applications. In many cases,the most distinguished information is hidden in the frequencycontent of the signal. There are number of transformations thatcan be applied among which the Fourier transforms areprobably by far the most popular but Fourier analysis has aserious drawback in transforming to the frequency domain,time information is lost. To overcome this, short time fouriertransform was introduced .The short time fourier transform(STFT) represents a sort of compromise between the time andfrequency based views of a signal. It provides the informationabout both when and at what frequencies a signal eventoccurs. However, this information can be obtained withlimited precession and that precession is determined by thesize of the window. Wavelet analysis represents the nextlogical step: A windowing technique with variable sizedregions, Wavelet analysis allows the use of long time intervalswhere we want more precise low frequency information andshorter regions where we want high frequency information[5].In this paper we are concerned with EEG signal, since theEEG signal is not a stationary signal and it is also anunpredicted signal, therefore we are going with discretewavelet transform. In this method we are decomposing theEEG signal up to 8 levels using symlet 3 filters.III. T
HE
P
ROCESS
O
F
S
ELECTING
T
HE
T
HRESHOLD
 Ocular artifacts are large, transient, slow waves. Theyoccupy lower frequency range i.e, from 0Hz to 6-7Hz for theeye movement artifacts and typically up to the alpha band (8-13Hz), excluding very low frequencies, for the eye blink.When compared with the uncontaminated EEG,the amplitudesof the OA’sare of much higher order.In the awake conscious state neurons are firing in a moreindependent fashion, as a result of this desyncronization, theawake EEG signal is even more random spacing. The trueEEG is a noise like signal. Therefore any clear patterns cannotbe observed within it, nor can we simply correlate theparticular underlying events with its shape. Therefore theEOG can be removed by recovering the regression functionfrom the recorded EEG.A wavelet decomposition technique isa simple and an effective technique for denoising.[7]The EEG recorded is the combination of true EEG signaland the external noise. This external noise may be due todifferent artifacts , ,and this is denoted as k(t).The true EEGcan be denoted as E(t).therefore the measured signal can berepresented asX (t) =E (t) +K (t) ------------------------ (1)In this paper we assume that E(t) and K(t) are not correlated.Thresholding is a technique used for denoising both the signaland image. Selecting an appropriate threshold limit is thedifficult part in this process. The formula used for thisthresholding is as follows.T = 0.25*max(er) ------------------------ (2)Where max(er) is the maximum value in the low frequencyband. The EEG signal is decomposed using waveletdecomposition technique up to 8 levels. After decomposingthe signal up to 8 levels we are left with approximate anddetailed coefficients. Approximate coefficients are the lowfrequency component which has to be discarded; where asdetailed coefficients are high frequency components which areto be restored, after comparing them with the calculatedthreshold. As we have discussed previously OA’s occupylower frequencies so we are only concerned with lowfrequency components. The choice of threshold limit shouldbe such that it should not remove the original signalcoefficients leading to the loss of EEG data.IV. M
ETHODOLOGY
 In this paper we are presenting a technique based onwavelet decomposition for the removal of the ocular artifacts.For this purpose we have taken EEG data of 8 channels. Firstof all we are decomposing the data of the first channel upto 8levels using symlet 3 filter, next we are calculating thethreshold, then comparing each coefficients with the thresholdand keeping only those coefficients larger than threshold andapplying wavelet reconstruction to obtain the estimated EEGsignal. This process is repeated for all the remaining channels[11].V. R
ESULTS
 Figures of all the 8 channels are given one by one byplotting both the contaminated and corrected EEG.As we havementioned that the amplitude of ocular artifact will be muchlarger than the original EEG signal which is clearly seen in thegraphs of all the 8 channels.
Channel 1:
In the contaminated EEG signal of first channel we canobserve a peak in between 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak isidentified as ocular artifact in EEG signal. As we can observethat the amplitude of the Peak is above 200µv, and theamplitude of corrected EEG is reduced to a little above 50µv.
050100150200250300-100-50050100150200250samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig.1. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG of channel1
Channel 2:
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201292http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
In the contaminated EEG signal of second channel we canobserve a peak in between 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak isidentified as ocular artifact in EEG signal ,As we can observethat the amplitude of the Peak is About 96µv.After applyingwavelet decomposition technique the amplitude of EEG signalis reduced to a about 35µv,which is called corrected EEGsignal.
050100150200250300-80-60-40-20020406080100samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig. 2. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG signal of channel2
Channel 3:
In the contaminated EEG signal we can observe a peak inbetween 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak is identified asocular artifact in EEG signal which is recorded in the thirdchannel .the amplitude of the Peak is above 80µv, theamplitude of corrected EEG is reduced to a about 20µv.
050100150200250300-80-60-40-20020406080samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig. 3. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG signal of channel 3
Channel 4:
 In the contaminated EEG signal we can observe a peak inbetween 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak is identified asocular artifact in EEG signal which is recorded in the fourthchannel. As we can observe that the amplitude of the Peak isabout 117µv and after correcting it has reduced to a littleabove 20µv.
050100150200250300-80-60-40-20020406080100120samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig. 4. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG signal of channel 4
Channel 5:
In contaminated EEG signal we can observe a peak inbetween 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak is identified asocular artifact in EEG signal which is recorded in the fifthchannel. As we can observe that the amplitude of the Peak isabout 80µv and after correcting it has reduced to 20 µv.
 
050100150200250300-50050100samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig. 5. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG signal of channel 5
 
Channel 6:
In contaminated EEG signal we can observe a peak inbetween 50
th
and 100th sample. This peak is identified asocular artifact in EEG signal which is recorded in the sixthchannel. As we can observe that the amplitude of the Peak isat 80µv and after correcting it has reduced to 20 µv.
050100150200250300-60-40-20020406080samples
   E   E   G   s   i  g  n  a   l  a  m  p   l   i   t  u   d  e
 EEG with ArticraftsEEG with out Artifacts
 
Fig. 6. Combination of contaminated and corrected EEG signal of channel 6
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201293http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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