The node having the greatest weight is elected as cluster-head.
4.3 ELECTION CRITERIA
The following parameters define the criteria on which BCArely to elect the cluster-head.
it measures how much any node in the network is trusted by its neighborhood. It’s defined as the average of trust values received from each neighboring node. In orderto compute the trust value, we suppose that every mobilenode has an intrusion detection mechanism to determine if anode is considered as trust or not by periodically collectinginformation about the behavior of each neighbor.
: is the number of neighbors of a given node, withina given radius. This parameter is used to choose as cluster-head the node having the maximum neighbors to serve themore number of nodes.
This factor is the capability of a node toserve as long as possible. Since cluster-head has extraresponsibility and it must communicate as far/long aspossible, thus it must be the most powered node.
The Max Value
: as defined above, this parameter is used inthe election procedure to elect as cluster-head the nodewhich can handle the maximum of nodes.
This is the Number of nodes connected atone time from the CH.
This is a useful parameter whenelecting the cluster-head.Stability is defined as the difference between two measuresof M
, it becomes large whenthe node goes far from its neighbors or whenever itsneighbors are going in other direction than the one taken bythe considered node. This value is compared with
and anode is considered as most stable if it has the less value of stability.
In order to elect the most stable node as cluster-head,avoiding frequent roaming, we have computed the
using the following metrics:
between two nodes A,B(
), is the number of hops between them, which can beobtained from the packets sent from one to other, or hellomessage used in routing protocols. The possibility of obtaining the number of hops between two nodes is evidentand simple within all existed routing protocols.
The mean distance
This is defined as the average of distances between node A and all its neighbors.
Each of the previous parameters is calledpartial weight. Each parameter is affected a weight factordefining its degree of importance for the underlying protocolor the network. Since only a subset of these parameters canbe used according to the requirements of the network andthe underlying protocol, these factors provide moreflexibility and large scale of use to our algorithm. Forexample trust value may take the great value if theunderlying protocol is a key management protocol. Factorsare given values between 0 and 1, so that the sum of factorsis 1.
using all parameters cited above every nodein the network computes its global weight. Depending onthis weight a given node can be elected as cluster-head ornot.When cluster formation is to be performed by BCA, thenodes can change their position randomly (moves awayfrom each other) due to mobility. The communicationamong them may become difficult when they placethemselves outside the transmission range (tx) of the nodefrom which data has to be transferred. For this reason,transmission power of each node is required for weightcalculation. Mobility produces the randomly changedposition of each node. But the rates of data transfercapability (Tr) are not same for all the nodes in a clusterformation procedure. It shows the amount of data can bedelivered in a certain period of time by a node to all theother nodes in its transmission range. These two parametershave been considered for overall improvement inperformance. Using the following formula we calculate thecombined weight Wm for each node m, whereWe denote W1 , W2 , W3, W4 ,W5 and w6 the partialweights factors corresponding respectively to Trust value,Degree difference, Battery power , Max Value, Stability(Mobility) and Link Status in such a way that the sum of allthe factors are 1. The global weight is computed as follows:Wm=
: Degree differenceFor each node m ,
is defined as
for every node m, where,
= The total number of ideal neighbors of nodeN = Degree (Number of neighbors) of node m=
range x ji
BCA finds the sum of the distances, Dm, for every node andits neighbors asDm : Mean distanceDm = Sum of distances=
Y Y X X
andAverage relative distance
N D D
Vm: Average relative speed
N it mjmi
t mjVmi N V
),,( / 1,
Relative velocity with its neighbor nodes = V
(mi, m j, t)
(m j, t)
Running average of the velocity
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 1, January 201297http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500