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An Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

An Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Reducing energy consumption and prolonging network lifetime is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. So this problem has to solve for sensor node energy while meeting the requirements of applications/users. Hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and resource efficient solutions. In this paper to find an efficient way for saving energy consumption, we propose an Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol (IERP) that prolong the sensor network lifetime. IERP introduces a new clustering parameter for cluster head election, routing tree construction on cluster heads for sending aggregated data to the base station. We use two parameters to select cluster heads and construct routing tree on cluster heads that includes distance from each node (others or base station) and residual energy of the nodes. We use a simple but efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to cope with the area coverage problem. Simulation results in the NS-2 platform demonstrate the longer network lifetime of the IERP than the better-known clustering protocols, ERA and EAP.
Reducing energy consumption and prolonging network lifetime is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. So this problem has to solve for sensor node energy while meeting the requirements of applications/users. Hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and resource efficient solutions. In this paper to find an efficient way for saving energy consumption, we propose an Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol (IERP) that prolong the sensor network lifetime. IERP introduces a new clustering parameter for cluster head election, routing tree construction on cluster heads for sending aggregated data to the base station. We use two parameters to select cluster heads and construct routing tree on cluster heads that includes distance from each node (others or base station) and residual energy of the nodes. We use a simple but efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to cope with the area coverage problem. Simulation results in the NS-2 platform demonstrate the longer network lifetime of the IERP than the better-known clustering protocols, ERA and EAP.

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Published by: ijcsis on Feb 19, 2012
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011
An Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical RoutingProtocol In Wireless Sensore Networks
Behzad Homayoufar
Department of Technical and EngineeringMashhad Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityMashhad, IranBehzadHomayounfar1@gmail.com
Sayyed majid mazinani
Department of Electrical EngineeringImam Reza UniversityMashhad-IranMazinani@ieee.org 
 Abstract
—Reducing energy consumption and prolonging networklifetime is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. So thisproblem has to solve for sensor node energy while meeting therequirements of applications/users. Hierarchical networkstructures have the advantage of providing scalable and resourceefficient solutions. In this paper to find an efficient way for savingenergy consumption, we propose an Improved Energy AwareHierarchical Routing Protocol (IERP) that prolong the sensornetwork lifetime. IERP introduces a new clustering parameterfor cluster head election, routing tree construction on clusterheads for sending aggregated data to the base station. We use twoparameters to select cluster heads and construct routing tree oncluster heads that includes distance from each node (others orbase station) and residual energy of the nodes. We use a simplebut efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to copewith the area coverage problem. Simulation results in the NS-2platform demonstrate the longer network lifetime of the IERPthan the better-known clustering protocols, ERA and EAP.
 Keywords-Hierachical; Clustring; Routing Tree; Lifetime Network; Residual Energy
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
A typical WSN consists of a number of sensor devices thatcollaborate with each other to accomplish a common task (e.g.environment monitoring, object tracking, etc.) and report thecollected data through wireless interface to a sink node. Theareas of applications of WSNs vary from civil, healthcare andenvironmental to military. Examples of applications includetarget tracking in battlefields[1], habitat monitoring[2],civilstructure monitoring [3], forest fire detection [4] and factorymaintenance [5].Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) become an invaluableresearch area by providing a connection between the world of nature and that of computation by digitizing certain usefulinformation. In wireless sensor networks, the sensor noderesources are limited in terms of processing capability, wirelessbandwidth, battery power and storage space, whichdistinguishes wireless sensor networks from traditional ad hocnetworks [6]. In most applications, each sensor node is usuallypowered by a battery and expected to work for several monthsto one year without recharging. Such an expectation cannot beachieved without carefully scheduling the energy utilization. Soone of the very important factors that effect on sensor network life time is sensor's energies, so the protocol running onsensor networks must efficiently reduce the energyconsumption in order to prolong network lifetime [7]. Datagathering is a typical operation in many WSN applications, anddata aggregation in a hierarchical manner is widely used forprolonging network lifetime. Data aggregation can eliminatedata redundancy and reduce the communication load.Hierarchical mechanisms (especially clustering algorithms) arehelpful to reduce data latency and increase network scalability[8]. IERP protocol introduce new formula for cluster headselection that can better handle homogeneous energycircumstances than other clustering algorithms which IERP,first cluster the network then construct a spanning routing treeover all of the cluster heads. IERP uses two parameters toselect heads on tree that includes distance from each node(others and base station) and residual energy of the nodes. Onlythe root node of this tree can communicate with the sink nodeby single -hop communication. Because the energy consumedfor all communications in network can be computed by the freespace model, the energy will be extremely saved and Network lifetime is prolonged. The rest of this paper is organized asfollows: In the next section we introduce the related work, insection 3 we will discuss the proposed algorithm, simulationresults and performance evaluation are given in section 4, theconclusion is presented in sections 5.II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORKS
 In hierarchical networks, nodes are separated to playdifferent roles, such as CHs and cluster members. The higherlevel nodes, cluster heads (CHs), Each CH collects data fromthe cluster members within its cluster, aggregates the data, andthen transmits the aggregated data to the sink. All of thehierarchical routing protocols aim at selecting the best CH andclustering the nodes into appropriate clusters in order to saveenergy. The hierarchical clustering protocol may executereclustering and reselecting of CHs periodically in order todistribute the load uniformly among the whole network [10].By the method of CH selection, the hierarchical routingprotocols can be classified into two categories: random-selected-CH protocol and well-selected- CH protocol. Theformer randomly selects CHs and then rotates the CH task among all nodes, while the latter carefully selects appropriate
28http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011
CHs and then gathers nodes under the CHs based on thenetwork status [9] and [10]. Energy Residue Aware (ERA)clustering algorithm is one of energy-aware hierarchicalapproaches. It is also improved from LEACH by including thecommunication cost into the clustering. The communicationcost includes residual energy, communication energy from theCH to the sink and communication energy from the clustermembers to the CH. ERA uses the same CH selection schemeas LEACH but provides an improved scheme to help non-CHnodes choose a better CH to join by calculating the clusteringcost and finding CH according to maximum residual energy[11].In HEED, author introduces a variable known as clusterradius which defines the transmission power to be used forintra-cluster broadcast [12]. The initial probability for eachnode to become a tentative cluster head depends on its residualenergy, and final heads are selected according to the intra-cluster communication cost. HEED terminates within aconstant number of iterations, and achieves fairly uniformdistribution of cluster heads across the network. InEAP(Energy-Aware Routing Protocol), a node with a high ratioof residual energy to the average residual energy of all theneighbour nodes in its cluster range will have a largeprobability to become the cluster head. This can better handleheterogeneous energy circumstances than existing clusteringalgorithms which elect the cluster head only based on a node’sown residual energy. After the cluster formation phase, EAPconstructs a spanning tree over the set of cluster heads [13].Only the root node of this tree can communicate with the sink node by single-hop communication. Because the energyconsumed for all communications in the network can becomputed by the free space model, the energy will beextremely saved and thus leading to sensor network longevity[14].III.
 
T
HE
P
ROPOSED
A
LGORITHM
 In IERP , the role of the cluster head must be rotated amongall sensor nodes. Therefore, the operation of IERP is dividedinto rounds. Each round begins with a set-up phase whileclusters are organized and then in the steady-state phase therouting tree is constructed as well as aggregated data are sent tothe sink node.In IERP protocol, each node needs to maintain aneighbourhood table to store the information about itsneighbours that including residual energy and distance to sink.
 A.
 
 Network Model
This paper assumes that
 N 
sensor nodes are randomlyscattered in a two-dimensional square field
 A
and the sensornetwork has the following properties:
 
This network is a static densely deployed network. Itmeans a large number of sensor nodes are denselydeployed in a two-dimensional geographic space,forming a network and these nodes do not move anymore after deployment.
 
There is only one base station, which is deployed at afixed place outside A.
 
The energy of sensor nodes cannot be recharged.
 
Sensor nodes are location-aware, i.e. a sensor node canget its location information through other mechanismsuch as GPS or position algorithms.
 B.
 
Set-up phase
At the beginning of each round, each node first estimates itsresidual energy
(E 
node-res
)
 j
and broadcasts the
CH-E_Msg
 within radio range r which contains residual energy anddistance to base station. Each node receives the
CH-E _Msg
 from all neighbours in its cluster range and updates theneighbourhood table, also compute
CH-E 
(cluster headelection) using (1).

 
(E 
 NODE 
-
 RES
)
 J 
 
can be derived as below
:
 
(2)Where,
 N 
is the set of nodes ,
S
O
is set of other nodeswithin radio range
and
(E 
node-rem
)
 j
indicates the residualenergy of node
 j
in the current round as well as
(E 
toOther 
)
 ji
 indicates the communication energy from node
 j
to othernodes
i
within radio range
. Eventually, each node chooses
(E 
node-res
)
according to maximum residual energy .Value of parameter
dis(j
) is computed as follow :(3)
 D
db
 
is node distance to base station. We assume thatnumber of bits ,
k=1
, Transmission power ,
 p
=1
.In this protocol , If node s
CH-E 
is the largest value withinradio range
, it will set its state as head and node which hasthe second largest value of 
CH-E 
is selected as the back upcluster head for the next round. Because , the probability thatthis node will be selected as cluster head in the next round ishigh. So minimizing communication energy , calculations of CHs for half of rounds and reduction of energy Consumptionfor each round can help to prolong the network lifetime.
C.
 
Construction of Routing Tree
There are several ways that can construct aggregationtree[16]. All tree algorithms have the same structure but havedifferent metrics and cost measures. In this paper we use twoparameters to select root node on tree which is distance fromeach node (others or base station) and residual energy of thenodes. Only the root node of this tree can communicate withthe sink node by single -hop communication. In IERP , Afterclustering, cluster heads broadcast within a radio range
 R
amessage contains node residual energy and its distance to base
2
))100)((1()(
 jdis E  E CH 
 jresnode
o jitoOther  jremnode jresnode
Si N  j  E  E  Max E 
,})(){()(
)|))()((|()(
1
i D j D jdis
 plidbdb
29http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011
station. The cluster head computes
 RN 
(root node) by Using(4):(4)Where,
(E 
CH-res
)
is obtained as follow:(5)
S
is set of cluster heads in radio range
 R
,
(E 
CH-res
)
 j
 indicates the residual energy of the cluster head ,
(D
CH-db
)
 indicates cluster head distance to base station and
dis(ij)
 determines distance between cluster heads in radio range
 R
.Each cluster head node compute this
 RN 
and broadcasts itto other cluster head nodes within its radio range
 R
. If the othercluster head node has smaller
 RN 
, it selects the node that hasthe largest
 RN 
as its parents and sends a message to notify theparent node. Finally, after a specified time, a routing tree willbe constructed, whose root node has the largest
 RN 
among allcluster heads. Example of network topology is shown in Fig. 1.
TABLE I. S
IMULATION
P
ARAMETERS
 
 D.
 
 Intra-Cluster Coverage
Coverage is one of the most important issues in WSNs andit has been studied extensively in recent years [17]. Coveragemechanism is to choose a subset of active nodes to maintain thecoverage expectation. We introduce into clusters the notion of intra-cluster coverage which selects some active nodes withinclusters while maintaining coverage expectation of the cluster.Utilizing the idea proposed in our research, cluster headrandomly chooses
m' 
nodes according to (6) :(6)Where,
P
cover 
is the coverage expectation of sensing field,and
is sensing radius,
 R
is cluster radius and
m' 
is the numberof active nodes. Use of intra-cluster coverage has twoadvantages. The first is to reduce energy consumption in eachround by turning redundant nodes’ radio off so that network lifetime is prolonged. The second is to reduce TDMA scheduleoverhead. In this case we can coverage whole of network byactive nodes and other member nodes are turned off, as a result,energy consumption in intra cluster nodes remarkably reducedand network lifetime is extended [15].
Figure 1. Example of Network Topology
IV.
 
P
ERFORMANCE
E
VALUATION
 We used NS-2 to implement and simulate our protocol andcompare it with the ERA and EAP protocols. Every simulationresult shown below is the average of 100 independentexperiments where each experiment uses a different randomly-generated uniform topology of sensor nodes. The parametersused in simulations are listed in Table 1.
 A.
 
 Network Lifetime
Figure 2. Network Lifetime
Parameters Value
 
Network Filed (0,0)~(100,100)Number of nodes 100~500Cluster radius R 30 mSensing radius r 10 mSink position (50,200)Initial energy 3 JData packet size 600 BytesBroadcast packet size 30 BytesEthreshold 0.01 JEelec 50 nJ/bitEfs 10 nJ/bit/m2Threshold distance 80mData Cycles perround(L)5
lidbCH iresCH li jresCH 
ijdisi D E  E  RN 
121
)())()(()(
 j BSCH  jremCH  jresCH 
S j E  E  E 
)()()(
imimiimer 
 R R p
        
222cov
1
CHNonCH
r
R
 
SINK
 
30http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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