(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011
CHs and then gathers nodes under the CHs based on thenetwork status  and . Energy Residue Aware (ERA)clustering algorithm is one of energy-aware hierarchicalapproaches. It is also improved from LEACH by including thecommunication cost into the clustering. The communicationcost includes residual energy, communication energy from theCH to the sink and communication energy from the clustermembers to the CH. ERA uses the same CH selection schemeas LEACH but provides an improved scheme to help non-CHnodes choose a better CH to join by calculating the clusteringcost and finding CH according to maximum residual energy.In HEED, author introduces a variable known as clusterradius which defines the transmission power to be used forintra-cluster broadcast . The initial probability for eachnode to become a tentative cluster head depends on its residualenergy, and final heads are selected according to the intra-cluster communication cost. HEED terminates within aconstant number of iterations, and achieves fairly uniformdistribution of cluster heads across the network. InEAP(Energy-Aware Routing Protocol), a node with a high ratioof residual energy to the average residual energy of all theneighbour nodes in its cluster range will have a largeprobability to become the cluster head. This can better handleheterogeneous energy circumstances than existing clusteringalgorithms which elect the cluster head only based on a node’sown residual energy. After the cluster formation phase, EAPconstructs a spanning tree over the set of cluster heads .Only the root node of this tree can communicate with the sink node by single-hop communication. Because the energyconsumed for all communications in the network can becomputed by the free space model, the energy will beextremely saved and thus leading to sensor network longevity.III.
In IERP , the role of the cluster head must be rotated amongall sensor nodes. Therefore, the operation of IERP is dividedinto rounds. Each round begins with a set-up phase whileclusters are organized and then in the steady-state phase therouting tree is constructed as well as aggregated data are sent tothe sink node.In IERP protocol, each node needs to maintain aneighbourhood table to store the information about itsneighbours that including residual energy and distance to sink.
This paper assumes that
sensor nodes are randomlyscattered in a two-dimensional square field
and the sensornetwork has the following properties:
This network is a static densely deployed network. Itmeans a large number of sensor nodes are denselydeployed in a two-dimensional geographic space,forming a network and these nodes do not move anymore after deployment.
There is only one base station, which is deployed at afixed place outside A.
The energy of sensor nodes cannot be recharged.
Sensor nodes are location-aware, i.e. a sensor node canget its location information through other mechanismsuch as GPS or position algorithms.
At the beginning of each round, each node first estimates itsresidual energy
and broadcasts the
within radio range r which contains residual energy anddistance to base station. Each node receives the
from all neighbours in its cluster range and updates theneighbourhood table, also compute
(cluster headelection) using (1).
can be derived as below
is the set of nodes ,
is set of other nodeswithin radio range
indicates the residualenergy of node
in the current round as well as
indicates the communication energy from node
within radio range
. Eventually, each node chooses
according to maximum residual energy .Value of parameter
) is computed as follow :(3)
is node distance to base station. We assume thatnumber of bits ,
, Transmission power ,
.In this protocol , If node s
is the largest value withinradio range
, it will set its state as head and node which hasthe second largest value of
is selected as the back upcluster head for the next round. Because , the probability thatthis node will be selected as cluster head in the next round ishigh. So minimizing communication energy , calculations of CHs for half of rounds and reduction of energy Consumptionfor each round can help to prolong the network lifetime.
Construction of Routing Tree
There are several ways that can construct aggregationtree. All tree algorithms have the same structure but havedifferent metrics and cost measures. In this paper we use twoparameters to select root node on tree which is distance fromeach node (others or base station) and residual energy of thenodes. Only the root node of this tree can communicate withthe sink node by single -hop communication. In IERP , Afterclustering, cluster heads broadcast within a radio range
amessage contains node residual energy and its distance to base
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