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Using Biometric Techniques To Secure Online Student Assessment: Comparative Study

Using Biometric Techniques To Secure Online Student Assessment: Comparative Study

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Published by ijcsis
Currently E-learning systems do not provide a tool to authenticate student continuously during online assessment, this raises the probability of cheating. Many proposed solutions use different biometric techniques to identify and authenticate student continuously, they use different techniques with different measures. This paper proposes certain criteria that should be available in any proposed biometric technique to be fitted with e-learning architecture and continues authentication of student during online assessment. This paper investigates some proposed solutions to see compatibility of those solutions with the proposed criteria.
Currently E-learning systems do not provide a tool to authenticate student continuously during online assessment, this raises the probability of cheating. Many proposed solutions use different biometric techniques to identify and authenticate student continuously, they use different techniques with different measures. This paper proposes certain criteria that should be available in any proposed biometric technique to be fitted with e-learning architecture and continues authentication of student during online assessment. This paper investigates some proposed solutions to see compatibility of those solutions with the proposed criteria.

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Published by: ijcsis on Feb 19, 2012
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06/17/2012

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Using Biometric techniques to secure online studentassessment: comparative study
 
Jamaludin Ibrahim
Faculty of Information and Communication TechnologyIIUMKuala Lumpur, Malaysia jamaludinibrahim@iium.edu.my
Muna A. Ali, Rasheed Nassr 
Faculty of Information and Communication TechnologyIIUMKuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 Abstract 
 — 
Currently E-learning systems do not provide a tool toauthenticate student continuously during online assessment, thisraises the probability of cheating. Many proposed solutions usedifferent biometric techniques to identify and authenticatestudent continuously, they use different techniques with differentmeasures. This paper proposes certain criteria that should beavailable in any proposed biometric technique to be fitted with e-learning architecture and continues authentication of studentduring online assessment. This paper investigates some proposedsolutions to see compatibility of those solutions with the proposedcriteria.
 Keywords-component; Biometric, E-learning, onlineassessment 
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
Many educational organizations depend on E-learningsystem to conduct education; this dependency was focusing ondelivering material online and facilitating interaction amongstudents and instructors but now increases and reaches to thelevel of issuing trustful certificates as a result of that the needfor confidential and trustful security mechanism is highlyrequired. Most of current e-learning systems pay less attentionfor continues online assessment security and focus on securinginformation assets [2, 1, and 10]. E-learning system might failto guarantee the real identity of the remote user and whether does the intended student who is doing the assessment or somebody on behalf during assessment session [5, 1, 6, and12]. Current and future requirements of E-learning system mayrequire more security that use physical or/and behavioralfeatures of the learners, further details about the need for  biometric security techniques in E-learning can be found in[12].II.
 
L
ITERATURE REVIEW
 Even though Ref [3] deeply analyzed the challenges andopportunities of E-learning and visualized the shape of future E-learning, security challenges were not mentionedor analyzed; however Ref [2] reported the importance of security for E-learning; the focus was how to protect datafrom unauthorized access. As a matter of fact, E-learningsystem just resembles any other systems, needs to protectits data but the difference is the need to identify and verifystudent’s identity continuously during assessment session.Apart, Biometric devices’ prices are getting decrease andvarious biometric devices currently can be foundembedded in most of laptops; this trend may encourage E-learning system designers to consider biometricauthentication in future design [8, and 12]. Besides that,the lack of secured and granted students’ identificationsystem in e-learning online assessment could limit thesuccess and extendibility of E-learning system [9].Usually biometric used to control access to restricted physical environment and used rarely to authenticateremote users. Traditional authentication techniques suchas password do not prevent student’s larceny and aretransferable from user to another [8, Chang 2009; 5], because of failing to grant student’s identity by using password, it has been suggested to restrict accessingonline assessment from certain areas [8]. However thatcannot be practical solution particularly when e-learningsystem’s boundaries exceed campus area as well as itrequires students to be locked in certain area for exam period which may be difficult to fulfill.Biometric techniques may be evaluated according toacceptance, features, durability, universality, and permanence [10, 12, and 13]. Many literatures havediscussed the flexibility, acceptance, performance andstrong and weak points of most of the biometrictechniques [10, 12, and 13]. However; it is not necessaryto be fully considered in e-learning because other featuresmay control choosing the suitable biometric for E-learning such as ability of identification process to break down into client and server procedures, requiredequipments, cost-effective and does it affect E-learning performance. In case of required equipment, Chang(2009) proposal-personalized rhythm- to authenticateusers does not require special biometric devices to verifystudent’s identity but detects student’s identity by the wayshe/he behaves with input devices- mouse, keyboard, etc.and neural network is used to decrease a chances of falseacceptance rate. Though Face recognition is not accurateas much as fingerprint [11], it seems the most eligible because it can prove the physical existence of the remoteuser in front of camera as well as availability of camera inmost of the current manufactured laptops strengthens itseligibility. Reference [11] described the process of Facerecognition for remote user by the following steps: a-extract the image portion that contains the face, b-consider other factors such as distance to make theextracted part of image comparable, c- search for 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 201141http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
matching in database. Face recognition is influenced by pose and illumination;
 
it needs extra transformationtechniques to decrease the effects of such problems[11].Similarly; video face recognition can use the samealgorithms of face recognition from image, the onlydifference is processing more than one image, however;some algorithms use the unique features of video such ascontinuity to recognize face, while other techniques useimage and video together to recognize face [11]
.
There isa little superiority for video against image but still hasown problems such as quality, variations of illuminationand facial expressions [11]. To increase the possibility of face recognition, pictures are taken in different poses:reading, looking, and typing of each identity in order to beused during verification [11].III.
 
C
ANDIDATE
B
IOMETRIC METHOD
S FEATURES
 Beside the features that already mentioned in section I, biometric methods needs extra features that qualify it tofit E-learning architecture as well as the ability to sustaincontinues authentication during online assessment.Biometric method may need to meet the following:divisible into client/server procedures to work withclient/server architecture of E-learning system, ability touse partial features to identify person- to make it fast andreal time, law network bandwidth consuming because E-learning’s nature that may utilize multimedia in educationthat already consumes network bandwidth and thecandidate method should not make it worse, eventually;capability to identify real personality of the examinee.This section will investigate some biometric techniquesthat are proposed to see the compatibility with those extrafeatures.The current biometric techniques that can be run withoutextra equipments are keystroke pattern, face and facial,and voice recognition because most of the currentcomputing devices equipped by camera and microphone.Apart; It is known that voice recognition process may beeffected by human health conditions and it isuncomfortable for student to speak from time to time toconfirm his existence, as it is possible the person whoconduct online assessment is attend the session withsomebody else where student keep authenticate himself while the second one doing assessment on behalf, voicerecognition is not recommended because noise and replayattack [13]. Those circumstances may exclude utilizingvoice recognition as continues authentication technique.However;
 
Ref [11] face recognition-based model fitsclient/server architecture of E-learning as well as it doesnot send the face image as a whole but certain vectors thatcapture the main biometric features. This will decrease thetime to send data through Internet and time to process thewhole image features. In contrast; COPaCII model hascapability to identify face facial even with law resolutionsimages but all work done in the server-side, it lacks client/server architecture of E-learning [6]. While Ref [4]established a model to evaluate the performance of handgeometric and face recognition without need for large biometric feature, that model proves that there is no needfor large number of features to identify person. Besidesthat the main concern of that proposed model was the performance of the biometric system. This model seemsto be suitable because it meet most of the features but thearchitecture of this model was not elaborated but it could be expected that it will be easier to integrate it with E-learning particularly face-recognition’s part that supportsthe idea of continues online assessment. Reference [13]gave estimated minimum and maximum memory spacethat could be consumed of some biometric, table I showstheir memory size estimation, and this paper adds factor of ability to be applied to identify real personality andexistance of the examinee during online assessment.Facial recognition has various memory sizes depend onwhether full or partial features will be collected and it hashigh ability to ensure real personality existence in front of camera. While Iris is more accurate but consumessomehow high memory space, the problem with Iris isthat it is difficult to propose practical solution using thismethod because it is not reasonable to convince student toStare at camera all the time during online assessment.Reference [7] reported that the performance of the currentface recognition systems is reasonable, and concluded thatit is questionable to verify identity by face recognitiontechnique only without help of certain contextualinformation. But it looks as the most suitable tool to beincluded in e-learning system. Similarly; keystrokerhythm does not interrupt students and the same timedetects availability of the students during onlineassessment [10]. A detailed list of considerations thatmust be bear in mind when biometric techniques arechosen to be implemented in E-learning can be found inRef [10]
.
Reference [4] addressed how to evaluate performance of several biometric techniques, it is foundthat biometric characteristics could be normallydistributed particularly hand geometric and human face.However; the main considerable key factors to evaluate biometric system are False Acceptance Rate (
 FAR) and 
False Rejection Rate (FRR) [4].IV.
 
C
ONCLUSION
 It is practical to include biometric authentication methodswith E-learning however; some considerations must be bear inmind such as ability to identify personality of examinee in real-time and ability to be divided into client/server procedures.Some biometric does not cost too much such as keystrokemethod and it is practical, while others need some equipmentsthat already become common nowadays meanwhile voice andiris could not be practical, because the former one has security,technical and human-related problems; later consumes morememory and has adaptability problem with students. It isexpected that biometric methods be included in current andfuture E-learning system as a result of decreasing prices of equipments and availability of technical and programming
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 201142http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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