introduced to improve the process by searching for the bestfeatures subset, from the original features.GA is an adaptive method of global-optimizationsearching and simulates the behavior of the evolution processin nature. It is based on Darwin’s fittest principle, which statesthat an initial population of individuals evolves throughnatural selection in such a way that the fittest individuals havea higher chance of survival.The GA maintains a cluster of competing featurematrices. To evaluate each matrix in this cluster, the inputs aremultiplied by the matrix, producing a set of output which arethen sent to a classifier. The classifier typically divides thefeatures into a training set and a testing set, to evaluateclassification accuracy. Generally each feature is encoded intoa vector called a chromosome.fitness = W
Accuracy + W
is the weight of accuracy and
is the weight of Nfeature participated in classification where N
A fitness value will be used to measure the fitness of a chromosome and decides whether a chromosome is good ornot in a given cluster. Initial populations in the genetic processare randomly created. GA uses three operators to produce anext generation from the current generation:
GA eliminates the chromosomes of low fitness and keeps the ones of high fitness.Thus more chromosomes of high fitness move to thenext generation. This process is repeated until a goodchromosome (individual) is found. The Figure 1 illustrates thefeature selection using the genetic algorithm
FIGURE 1 F
The total features extracted are 40. The selectedfeatures using GA method are tabulated as follows:
The above Table 5 shows the feature selected by GA method.
3.2 Feature selection by Rough Set
Fuzzy set involves more advanced mathematicalconcepts, real numbers and functions, whereas in classical settheory the notion of a set is used as a fundamental notion of whole mathematics and is used to derive any othermathematical concepts, e.g., numbers and functions [13,14].Rough set theory can be viewed as a specificimplementation of Frege’s idea of vagueness, i.e., imprecisionin this approach is expressed by a boundary region of a set,and not by a partial membership, like in fuzzy set theory.Rough set concept can be defined quite generally by means of topological operations, interior and closure, calledapproximations. The concept of rough set theory is based onthe followings:
3.2.1 Decision Tables
A decision table consists of two different attribute sets.One attribute set is designated to represent Conditions (C) andanother set is to represent Decision (D). Therefore, each rowof a decision table describes a decision rule, which indicates aparticular decision to be taken if its corresponding condition issatisfied. If a set of decision rules has common condition butdifferent decisions then all the decision rules belonging to thisset are inconsistent decisions, otherwise; they are consistent.
3.2.2 Dependency of Attributes
Similar to relational databases, dependencies betweenattributes may be discovered. If all the values of attributesfrom D are uniquely determined by values of attributes from Cthen D depends totally on C or C functionally determines Dwhich is denoted by C
D. If D depends on some of theattributes of C (i.e. not on all) then it is a partial dependency C
D and a degree of dependency (k; 0
≤ k ≤ 1) can becomputed as k = γ(C, D), where γ(C, D) is the consistencyfactor of the decision table. γ(C, D) is defi
ned as the ratio of the number of consistent decision rules to the total number of decision rules in the decision tables.
3.2.3 Reduction of Attributes
Decision tables where feature vectors are the condition(C) and desired values for corresponding classes are thedecisions (D) can also represent classification of featurevectors. Now the dimensionality reduction can simply be
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 201187http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500