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In this paper, we propose a new median-based switching filter, called Iterative Selective & Progressive

Switching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise density and threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy input image by the noise detector, also noise detection window size is iteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result shows that our method is significantly better than a number of existing techniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

Switching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise density and threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy input image by the noise detector, also noise detection window size is iteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result shows that our method is significantly better than a number of existing techniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

In this paper, we propose a new median-based switching filter, called Iterative Selective & Progressive

Switching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise density and threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy input image by the noise detector, also noise detection window size is iteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result shows that our method is significantly better than a number of existing techniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

Switching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise density and threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy input image by the noise detector, also noise detection window size is iteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result shows that our method is significantly better than a number of existing techniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

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Iterative Selective & Progressive SwitchingMedian Filter for removal of salt and peppernoise in images

Abdullah Al Mamun

Computer Science & EngineeringMawlana Bhashani science & Technology UniversitySantosh, Tangail, Bangladeshmamun_tas_07034@yahoo.com

Md. Motiur Rahman

Computer Science & EngineeringMawlana Bhashani science & Technology UniversitySantosh, Tangail, Bangladeshmm73rahman@gmail.com

Khaleda Sultana

Computer Science & EngineeringMawlana Bhashani science & Technology UniversitySantosh, Tangail, Bangladeshkhaledasultana07032@yahoo.com

Abstract—

In this paper, we propose a new median-basedswitching filter, called Iterative Selective & ProgressiveSwitching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise densityand threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy inputimage by the noise detector, also noise detection window size isiteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result showsthat our method is significantly better than a number of existingtechniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter(PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

Keywords-salt & pepper noise; selective & progressive switching median filter; noise detector; mean square error; peak signal to noise ratio

I.

IN

TRODUCTION

Images are often corrupted by salt & pepper noise due totransmission errors, malfunctioning pixel elements in thecamera sensors, faulty memory locations & timing errors inanalog-to-digital conversion [1]. Median Filter one of the mostpopular filtering method has been established as a reliablemethod to remove noise without damaging edge details [2-4]with high computational efficiency. Several median filteringmethods have been proposed for removal of salt & peppernoise densities [5-8]. The weighted median filter & centerweighted median filter give more importance to current pixelpreserving good image details, but offered less noisesuppression when the center weighted pixel itself is corrupted[9-12]. Recently, switching schema has been studied forremoval of salt & pepper noise in images [13-14]. This schemadetects the noise whether the current image is corrupted by salt& pepper noise at each pixel. Then, filtering is activated for thepixels which are detected as noisy pixels, while good pixels arekept unchanged. As a switching scheme, Progressive SwitchingMedian Filter (PSMF) [13] was proposed for removal of salt &pepper noise. In the methods of PSM filter, both the noisedetector and noise filter are applied progressively. The noisedetector detects a salt & pepper noise and outputs a binary flagimage. The binary flag image denotes whether pixels arecorrupted or not. According to a binary flag image, the filterprocesses to only those noisy pixels using neighborhood goodpixels. Since the process of filtering according to the binaryflag image, the PSM filter performs satisfactory in removingsalt & pepper noise.In this paper, we present a new median-based switchingfilter called Iterative Selective & Progressive SwitchingMedian Filter (ISPSMF), where both the noise density (R),threshold value (T

D

) are calculated dynamically from noisyinput image by the noise detector, also noise detection windowsize (W

D

) is iteratively detected by the noise detector, wherethe existing PSM filtering method manually select the value of R, T

D

and

W

D

. In switching section of Fig. 1, if no noises areavailable in the image then output is the uncorrupted imageand for detected noises the Iterative Noise Filter (INF) isselected. For further removal of noises (the remaining noisesof the output of the INF portion), the Selective Median Filter(SMF) are applied finally. For the minimum noise filter

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011125http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of Iterative Selective & ProgressiveSwitching Median Filter (

ISPSMF

).

window size (W

f

× W

f

), there may remains minimum numberof noises. For that we add a Selective Median Filter (SMF),which select the noisy pixel (whose values are not 0) from theprevious output of Iterative Noise Filter (INF) and replace thispixel by the neighborhood value of that’s pixel.II.

THE

DESIGN

OF

THE

FILTER

ISPSM

The principle of the filter ISPSM: The principle of identifyingnoisy pixels & processing only noisy pixels has been effectivein image degradation. The limitation of the PSM filter is thatdefining a robust decision measure is difficult because thedecision is usually based on a predefined threshold value [13]

A. Iterative Noise Detection

A noise free image should be locally smoothly varying, andis separated by edges [4]. In the n

th

iteration (where n = 1, 2…), for each pixel x

i(n-1)

, we first find the median value of thesamples W

D

×W

D

(where W

D

is an odd integer not smallerthan 3 for better result) window centered about it. The noisedensity R respect to input image X is given by,

R=

2))size(X,*1)(Size(X,
Xof pixeltheof sum

(1)The value of noise density (R) is calculated with respect to theinput image. Where,If R

≤0.25

then set the noise detection windowsize W

D

= 3.Else W

D

= 5, Here, W

D

= 3 is more suitable forlow noise ratio & W

D

= 5 is better for high noise ratio[5],Figure 2 with a cross point at about R = 20%.The thresholdvalue (T

D

) according to noise density(R) is given by,T

D

=a + (b × R) (2)

The Effects of T

D

with respect to MSE are shown inFigure 3. According to experiment results, we choose a & b as65, & -50, respectively. Where it appears that the best T

D

isdecreasing with the increase of R.[13]. Two image sequencesare generated during the noise detection procedure. The first isa sequence of gray scale images, {{x

ij(0)

}, {x

ij(1)

}, . . . . ..{x

ij(n)

}, . . . . . . . }, where the initial image {x

ij(0)

} is the noisyimage to be detected. The second is a binary flag imagesequence, {{f

ij(0)

}, {f

ij(1)

}, . . . . . .{f

ij(n)

}, . . . . . . . }, where thebinary value f

ij(n)

is used to indicate whether the pixel ij hasbeen detected as a noisy pixel, i.e., f

ij(n)

= 0 means the pixel ijis good & f

ij(n)

= 1 means it has been found to be a noisy pixel.Before the first iteration, we assume that all the image pixelsare good, i.e.

f

ij(0)

≡ 0

The Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) [8]where the Eq.[1-4] was introduced, but by performing somemodification get best result. First median value of neighborhood pixels m

ij(n-1)

is obtained using,

W i

== {(j

1

,j

2

)|

i

1

- (W-1)/2

≤ j

1

≤

i

1

+(W-1)/2,i

2

- (W-1) /2

≤ j

2

≤ i

2

+ (W-1)/2}

(3)Then we get,

}),(|Med{

21)1()1(

D

W in jni

j j xm

(4)Where

D

W i

represent the set of the pixels within a W

D

×W

D.

Window centered about ij. And then the difference betweenm

ij(n-1)

& x

ij(n-1)

provide binary flag image f

ij(n)

, which isdetected as a salt & pepper noise given by,

else ,1
||if ,

)1()1()1(
)(

Dnijnijnijnij

T m x f
f

(5)Where T

D

is calculated threshold value. Once a pixel ij isdetected as a salt & pepper noise, the value of x

ij(n)

issubsequently modified

)1()()1(
)1()()1(
)(

else ,
if ,

nijnijnijnijnijnijnij

f f x f f m x

(6)When the noise detection procedure is stopped after thenoise detection iteration number, N

Dth

iteration, two outputimages {

)(

D

N ij

x

} and {

)(

D

N ij

f

} are obtained, but only{

)(

D

N ij

f

} is useful for our noise filtering algorithm

B. Iterative Noise Filtering

This procedure generates a gray scale image sequence,{{y

ij(0)

}, {y

ij(1)

}, . . . . . .{y

ij(n)

}, . . . . . . . }, is the noisy image tobe filtered & a binary flag image sequence, {{g

ij(0)

}, {g

ij(1)

}, . .. . . .{g

ij(n)

}, . . . . . . . }. Where the value g

ij(n)

= 0 means thepixel ij is good & g

ij(n)

= 1 means it is a salt & pepper noise

IterativeNoiseDetectorNeighborhoodMedianFilter (NMF)SwitchIterative

NoiseFilter(INF)

SelectiveMedianFilter(SMF)UncorruptedImage(No filter)NoiseImage

OutputImage

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011126http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

that should be filtered. The difference between the IterativeNoise Detection & Iterative Noise Filtering (INF) procedure isthat the initial flag image {g

ij(0)

} of the Iterative Noise Filter(INF) procedure is not a blank image. In this method at the n

th

iteration (n = 1, 2 …), for each pixel y

ij(n-1)

, Firstly we find itsmedian value m

ij(n-1)

of a W

f

× W

f

(W

F

is an filtering windowsize. Also an odd integer not smaller than 3) window centeredabout it. Then switch the noise filter. Let M denote the numberof all the pixels with g

ij(n-1)

= 0 in the W

f

× W

f

window.If M is odd, then

},0|Med{

)1()1()1(

F

W inijnijnij

ijg ym

(7)Where

F

W i

represent the set of the pixels within a W

D

×W

D

window centered about ij. Where,If M is even but not 0, then

2}),0|{Med
},0|{Med(

)1()1(
R)1()1(
L)1(

F F

W ijnijnijW ijnijnijnij

ijg yijg ym

(8)Where Med

L

& Med

R

denote the left ((M/2)

th

largest) & right((M/2+1)

th

largest) median values respectively which meansneighborhood pixel.If M is greater than 0 (salt & pepper noise noisy pixel), thenvalue y

ij(n)

is modified

else. ,
.0;0if ,

)1()()1(
)(

nijnijnijnij

y M gm y

(9)Once a noisy pixel is modified, it is considered as a good pixelin the subsequent iterations

)1()(
)1()()1(
)(

if ,0
if ,

nijnijnijnijnijnij

m y y ygg

(10)The procedure stops after the N

Fth

iteration when all the noisypixels have been modified, i.e,

0

ij N ij

F

g

(11)But there have least salt & pepper noise shown in Fig.6, then apply selective median filter, reduce lest noise & getRestored output image {g

ij

} of size N ×M.III.

PROPOSE (ISPSM FILTER) ALGORITHMStep 1: Takes the pixels of the input image (Xij).Step 2: Define the noise density(R) respect to input image(Xij) given by,R=

2))size(X,*1)(Size(X,
Xof pixeltheof sum

(12)Step 3: If R

≤0.25

then set the salt & pepper noise detectionwindow size (W

D

) = 3 Else W

D

= 5.Step 4: Define the threshold value (T

D

) according to R.Step 5: Detect the noise respect to noise detectionwindow size (W

D

) & detection iteration number N

D

(notsmaller then 3 for best restoration). Also define binaryflag image,

ij

f

, Where

ij

f

is define 0(zero) beforefirst iteration.Step 6: In iterative noise filtering (INF), respect to n

th

iteration (n = 1, 2 …), for each pixel

)1(

ni

y

. Where,

)1(

ni

y

is the gray scale image sequence. Define abinary flag image {

)(

ni

g

}, the value

)(

ni

g

= 0 means thepixel (i,j) is good.Step 7: Perform Selective Median filtering (SMF) that selectthe noisy pixel,

)(

ni

g

(whose values are not 0) andreplace this value by the neighborhood value of theprevious output,

)1(

ni

y

of iterative noise filter.IV.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSThe performance of the proposed method has beenevaluated by the simulations. T

D

and R are calculateddynamically from the noisy input image.The performance of noise detection of restoration isquantitatively measured by Mean Square Error (MSE)

211

)(1

M i N jijij

xr MN MSE

(13)The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)

) / 255(10log10

2

MSE PSNR

(14)Where r

ij

is the original image & x

ij

is the restoredimage. The performance of the proposed method is comparedwith MED, CWM, PSM filters. Figure 4. & Table 1 Shows thatour proposed filter reduce more noise which are applied onBridge image. That is the PSNR of the proposed method isbetter than the others mentioned methods. Our proposedmethod is applied on lena and pepper image. Figure 5 alsovisually shows that its performance is better than othermentioned methods. After applying PSM method more noisesare available and than our proposed method also remove themwhich are shown in Fig. 6, where salt & pepper noise = 0.02for (a), (b) and salt & pepper noise = 0.31 for (c), (d).

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011127http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500