Wireless sensor networking have such sensor nodes whichare specially designed in such a typical way that they havea microcontroller which controls the monitoring, a radiotransceiver for generating radio waves, different type of wireless communicating devices and also equipped with anenergy source such as battery. The entire network workedsimultaneously by using different dimensions of sensors and worked on the phenomenon of multi routingalgorithm  which also termed as wireless ad hocnetworking.In a wormhole attack, an attacker receives packets atone point in the network, “tunnels” them to another pointin the network, and then replays them into the network from that point. For tunneled distances longer than thenormal wireless transmission range of a single hop, it issimple for the attacker to make the tunneled packet arrivewith better metric than a normal multihop route.The paper is organized as follows. In the section 2, weexplain the brief description of Random waypoint MobilityModel. In section 3, we explain the working of WEP andCCMP security protocols in Wireless Sensor Network.Section 4, give introduction of AODV and DSR routingprotocol. Section 5, describes the security in WirelessSensor Network. In section 6, we cover operation of wormhole attack in DSR and AODV protocols. Section 7,we discuss about the simulation setup and result of simulation and at the end in section 8, we draw theconclusion of simulation scenarios.II.
Random waypoint model is a random-based mobilitymodel used in mobility management schemes for mobilecommunication systems. This designed to describe themovement pattern of mobile user which include how theirlocation, mobility and acceleration change over time. TheRandom waypoint model, first proposed by Johnson andMaltz , soon became a "benchmark" mobility model to evaluate the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)routing protocols, because of its simplicity and wideavailability.III.
A. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) was the defaultencryption protocol introduced in the first IEEE 802.11standard back in 1999. It is based on the RC4 encryptionalgorithm, with a secret key of 40 bits or 104 bits beingcombined with a 24-bit Initialization Vector (IV) toencrypt the plaintext message M and its checksum – theICV (Integrity Check Value). The encrypted message Cwas therefore determined using the following formula:
) ] + [ RC4(
|| IV) ]
where || is a concatenation operator and + is a XORoperator. Clearly, the initialization vector is the key toWEP security, so to maintain a decent level of security andminimize disclosure the IV should be incremented for eachpacket so that subsequent packets are encrypted withdifferent keys. Unfortunately for WEP security, the IV istransmitted in plain text and the 802.11 standard does notmandate IV incrimination, leaving this security measure
Figure 1. WEP encryption protocolParticular wireless terminal (access point or wireless card)implementations.
B. Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP)
Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining MessageAuthentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryptionprotocol . CCMP offers enhanced securitycompared with similar technologies such as Temporal KeyIntegrity Protocol (TKIP). CCMP employs 128-bit keysand a 48-bit initialization vector that minimizes thevulnerability of attack. CCMP is a robust security network association (RSNA) data confidentiality and integrityprotocol. CCMP is based on the Counter Mode with CBC-MAC (CCM) of the AES encryption algorithm. CCM is ageneric authenticate and encrypt block cipher mode. Aunique temporal key (for each session) and a unique noncevalue (a value that’s used only once for each frame) arerequired for protecting the Medium Access ControlProtocol Data Unit (MPDU). Figure3 shows CCMPencapsulation block diagram. CCMP uses a 48-bit PacketNumber (PN) to protect the MPDUs. CCMP encrypts thepayload of a plaintext MPDU and encapsulates theresulting cipher text using the following algorithm. Figure-2 shows CCMP encapsulation algorithm. CCMP decryptsthe payload of a cipher text MPDU and decapsulatesplaintext MPDU using the following algorithm. Figure 5show CCMP decapsulation Block Diagram. Figure 4shows CCMP decapsulation algorithm.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011139http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500