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DCMC: Decentralized and Cellular Mechanism for improving fault management in Clustered wireless sensor networks

DCMC: Decentralized and Cellular Mechanism for improving fault management in Clustered wireless sensor networks

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Published by ijcsis
Due to the shared wireless communication medium and harsh environments in which sensor nodes are deployed, Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) are inherently fault-prone. Energy is one of the most constraining factors and node failures due to crash and energy exhaustion are commonplace. In order to avoid degradation of service due to faults, it is necessary for the WSN to be able to detect faults early and initiate recovery actions. In this paper we propose a cellular and decentralized cluster based method for any fault detection and recovery which is energy efficient namely DCMC. Simulation Results show that the performance of proposed algorithm is more efficient than previous ones.
Due to the shared wireless communication medium and harsh environments in which sensor nodes are deployed, Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) are inherently fault-prone. Energy is one of the most constraining factors and node failures due to crash and energy exhaustion are commonplace. In order to avoid degradation of service due to faults, it is necessary for the WSN to be able to detect faults early and initiate recovery actions. In this paper we propose a cellular and decentralized cluster based method for any fault detection and recovery which is energy efficient namely DCMC. Simulation Results show that the performance of proposed algorithm is more efficient than previous ones.

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DCMC: Decentralized and Cellular Mechanism for improving fault management inClustered wireless sensor networks
 
Shahram Babaie
1
, Tahereh Rasi
2
 
Technical and Engineering Department, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
1
hw.tab.au@gmail.com
2
tahereh_rasi@yahoo.com
Abstract—Due to the shared wireless communication mediumand harsh environments in which sensor nodes are deployed,Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) are inherently fault-prone.Energy is one of the most constraining factors and nodefailures due to crash and energy exhaustion are commonplace.In order to avoid degradation of service due to faults, it isnecessary for the WSN to be able to detect faults early andinitiate recovery actions. In this paper we propose a cellularand decentralized cluster based method for any fault detectionand recovery which is energy efficient namely DCMC.Simulation Results show that the performance of proposedalgorithm is more efficient than previous ones.
 Keywords- wireless sensor network; fault management; cellular mechanism; cluster-based; energy efficiency
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 In the recent years, the rapid advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems, low power and highly integrated digitalelectronics, small scale energy supplies, tinymicroprocessors, and low power radio technologies havecreated low power, low cost and multifunctional wirelesssensor devices, which can observe and react to changes inphysical phenomena of their environments. These sensordevices are equipped with a small battery, a tinymicroprocessor, a radio transceiver, and a set of transducersthat used to gathering information that report the changes inthe environment of the sensor node. The emergence of theselow cost and small size wireless sensor devices hasmotivated intensive research in the last decade addressing thepotential of collaboration among sensors in data gatheringand processing, which led to the creation of Wireless SensorNetworks (WSNs).A typical WSN consists of a number of sensor devicesthat collaborate with each other to accomplish a commontask (e.g. environment monitoring, target tracking, etc) andreport the collected data through wireless interface to a basestation or sink node. The areas of applications of WSNs varyfrom civil, healthcare and environmental to military.
Corresponding Author:
Tahereh Rasi, Technical and EngineeringDepartment, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.Email: tahereh_rasi@yahoo.com
 
Examples of applications include target tracking inbattlefields [1], habitat monitoring [2], civil structuremonitoring [3], forest fire detection [4], and factorymaintenance [5].Due to the deployment of a large number of sensor nodesin uncontrolled or even harsh or hostile environments, it isnot uncommon for the sensor nodes to become faulty andunreliable. Fault is an incorrect state of hardware or aprogram as a consequence of a failure of a component [6].Some of the faults result from systems or communicationhardware failure and the fault state is continuous in time. Forexample, a node may die due to battery depletion. In thispaper we consider only permanent faults, faults occurringdue to battery depletion in particular, which when leftunnoticed would cause loss in connectivity and coverage.Faults occurring due to energy depletion are continuousand as the time progresses these faults may increase,resulting in a non-uniform network topology. This oftenresults in scenarios where a certain segment of the network becomes energy constrained before the remaining network.The problems that can occur due to sensor node failure areloss in connectivity, delay due to the loss in connection andpartitioning of the network due to the gap created by thefailed sensors.Therefore, to overcome sensor node failure and toguarantee system reliability, faulty nodes should be detectedand appropriate measures to recover connectivity must betaken to accommodate for the faulty node. Also, the powersupply on each sensor node is limited, and frequentreplacement of the batteries is often not practical due to thelarge number of the nodes in the network. In this paper, wepropose a cluster based fault management scheme whichdetects and rectifies the problems that arise out of energydepletion in nodes. When a sensor node fails, theconnectivity is still maintained by reorganization of thecluster. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH [7] andHEED [8] saves energy and reduces network contention byenabling locality of communication.The localized fault detection method has been found tobe energy-efficient in comparison with another algorithmproposed in [9]. Crash faults identification (CFI) [9]performs fault detection for the sensor network. It does notpropose any method for fault recovery.In this paper we propose a cellular approach anddecentralized cluster based method called DCMC for faultdetection and recovery which is energy efficient.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011158http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
The rest of the paper organized as follows: in section 2,we explain the related works. Section 3 describes theproposed algorithm with detailed. Section 4 explore thesimulation parameters and result analysis. Final section iscontaining of conclusion and future works.
 
II.
 
ELATED WORKS
 In this section, we briefly review the related work in thearea of fault detection and recovery in wireless sensornetworks. Many techniques have been proposed for faultdetection, fault tolerance and repair in sensor networks [9,10, 11, 12]. Cluster based approach for fault detection andrepair has also been dealt by researchers in [12]. Hybridsensor networks make use of mobile sensor nodes to detectand recover from faults [13, 14, 15].In [16], a failure detection scheme using managementarchitecture for WSNs called MANNA, is proposed andevaluated. It has the global vision of the network and canperform complex tasks that would not be possible inside thenetwork. However, this approach requires an externalmanager to perform the centralized diagnosis and thecommunication between nodes and the manager is tooexpensive for WSNs. Several localized threshold baseddecision schemes were proposed by Iyengar [11] to detectboth faulty sensors and event regions. In [10], a faulty sensoridentification algorithm is developed and analyzed. Thealgorithm is purely localized and requires low computationaloverhead; it can be easily scaled to large sensor networks. Itdeals with faulty sensor readings that the sensors report.In [17], a distributed fault-tolerant mechanism calledCMATO for sensor-nets is proposed. It views the cluster asan individual whole and utilizes the monitoring of each otherwithin the cluster to detect and recover from the faults in aquick and energy-efficient way. In fault recovery scheme of this algorithm the nodes within the cluster which its clusterhead is faulty join to the neighbor cluster heads which isclosest to them.There have been several research efforts on fault repair insensor networks. In [18], the authors proposed sensordeployment protocol which moves sensor to provide aninitial coverage. In [19], the authors proposed an algorithmcalled Coverage Fidelity maintenance algorithm (Co-Fi),which uses mobility of sensor nodes to repair the coverageloss. In used solution in [20], the network is partitioned intoa virtual grid of cells to perform fault detection and recoverylocally with minimum energy consumption. We will refer tothis algorithm, with the cellular approach.To repair a faulty sensor, the work in [14] proposes analgorithm to locate the closest redundant sensor, and use thecascaded movement to relocate the redundant sensor. In [15],the authors proposed a policy-based framework for faultrepair in sensor network, and proposed a centralizedalgorithm for faulty sensor replacement. These techniquesoutline the ways by which mobile robots/sensors move toreplace the faulty nodes. However, movement of the sensornodes is by itself energy consuming and also to move to anexact place to replace the faulty node and establishconnectivity is tedious and energy consuming.III.
 
P
ROPOSED PROTOCOL
 Due to the large impact of the permanent faults in thecluster head side, in this paper we explore the fault-tolerantmechanism for it.In this section, we explain the components which areconsidered in proposed algorithm with details.
 A.
 
 Network Model
Let us consider a sensor network which consists of 
 N 
 nodes uniformly deployed over a square area with highdensely. There is a sink node located in the field, and thecluster heads use multi-hop routing to send data to it. Alsothe nodes in each cluster use tree topology to send data tocluster head. We assume all nodes, including the clusterheads and the normal nodes, are homogeneous and have thesame capabilities, and they use power control to vary theamount of transmission power which depends on thedistance to the receiver.As can be seen in Fig. 1, this algorithm selects a node asa manager node in each cluster so that firstly it has maximumremained energy and secondly it has maximum number of ordinary nodes in its neighborhood. For this reason, thisalgorithm uses (1) to select cluster manager.
Figure 1. Network model in DCMC
)()(_
on N non N i E  E CM  M 
β α 
+=
 (1)
Here,
 E 
 
is the remaining energy of the node and
 E 
m
is theamount of its initial energy.
 N 
non
of a node is the number of neighboring ordinary nodes which is in its transmission radiorange and
 N 
on
is the number of all ordinary nodes in thecluster. Parameters
α 
 
and
 β 
determines the weight of eachratio so that sum of them is 1.The node that has higher merit value is selected as acluster manager and hence it is responsible for faultmanagement in the cluster. In fact, the node has the merit of being cluster manager that amount of its energy is more andit is also located in center of the cluster.Then, the node that is selected as a cluster managerdivides the cluster into four cells virtually so that it places incenter of cells (as can be seen in Fig. 2). In addition, thecluster manager selects a cell manager for each cell by (2).
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011159http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Figure 2. Dividing the cluster into four virtuall cells by cluster manager
)__()()(_
++=
nnonci E nnonc E onc N nonc N i E  E CeM  M 
λ  β α 
 (2)
In here,
 N 
nonc
of a node is the number of neighboringordinary nodes which is in its transmission radio range in thesame cell and
 N 
onc
is the number of all ordinary nodes in thecell.
 E 
r-nnonc
 
is remaining energy of non-neighboring ordinarynode and
 E 
i-nnonc
is its initial energy. Parameters
α 
 ,
 
 β 
 
and
 
λ
 determine the weight of each ratio so that sum of them is 1.
 
The third parameter indicates the amount of remainingenergy of non-neighboring nodes should be more. As can beinferred, the possibility of failing non-neighboring nodes dueto the high remaining energy of these nodes is low.Therefore, the energy consumed by these nodes and the cellmanager to the fault management in the cell decreases.Cluster manager is connected only to cluster head andcell managers. Cell managers are connected only to clusterhead, cluster manager and nodes within the cell in proposedprotocol. We assume that these connections are single hop.
 B.
 
 Energy Consumption Model
In DCMC, energy model is obtained from [7] that useboth of the open space (energy dissipation
2
) and multi path(energy dissipation
4
) channels by taking amount thedistance between the transmitter and receiver. So energyconsumption for transmitting a packet of l bits in distance
 is given by (3).
>++=
 0,4mpleleclE  0,2 fsleleclE ) ,l( Tx E 
ε ε 
(3)
Here
0
is the distance threshold value which is obtainedby (4),
 E 
elec
is required energy for activating the electroniccircuits.
ε
 fs
and
ε
mp
are required energy for amplification of transmitted signals to transmit a one bit in open space andmulti path models, respectively.
mp fs
ε ε 
=
0
(4)
Energy consumption to receive a packet of 
l
bits iscalculated according to (5).
eleclE )l(  Rx E 
=
(5)
C.
 
Fault Detection and Recovery
Managers of the cells, cluster manager and cluster headin the cluster cooperate with each other to detect the faultynode in their own cluster. Each of these nodes cooperate indetect the failure of different types of nodes in differentforms. These operations discuss in below.
1)
 
Fault Detection and Recovery in the Ordinary Nodes
Initially, the managers of all cells are in sleep mode.When cluster head does not receive the data in response thesent
 Data_Req
packet, it will immediately inform the clustermanager. Then cluster manager send an
 Awake
message tomanager of the cell that desired node is located on it. Thenthe cell manager sends a Query message to the desired nodeand requests from it to responds to cell manager and clustermanager. Finally, the majority voting is done between cellmanager, cluster manager and cluster head to determine thestatus of desired node. The desired node is not used in thenext, if it is detected failed. Fig. 3 shows these operations.
Figure 3. Operations of fault detection and recovery in the ordinary nodes
2)
 
Fault Detection and Recovery in the Cluster Head 
For this purpose, cluster manager sends the Querymessage to cluster head and gets its response messageperiodically. Cluster manager reports to the cell managerswhen it does not receive any response from the cluster head.Cell managers also repeat this operation. Then the majorityvoting is done between cell managers and cluster manager todetermine the status of desired cluster head.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2011160http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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