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Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Estimation of Total Phenolic,Flavanoids and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Trachyspermum Ammi

Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Estimation of Total Phenolic,Flavanoids and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Trachyspermum Ammi

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Published by jamonline
journal of Atoms and Molecules
An international bi monthly online journal
Visit: www.jamonline.in
email: jamonlinejournal@gmail,com
journal of Atoms and Molecules
An international bi monthly online journal
Visit: www.jamonline.in
email: jamonlinejournal@gmail,com

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: jamonline on Feb 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/10/2012

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Jamonline /Nov-Dec 1(1) /1–8 Damodar K
et al 
 
All rights reserved© 2011 www.jamonline.in 
1
Research Article
Journal of Atoms and Molecules
  An International Online Journal An International Online Journal An International Online Journal An International Online Journal
ISSNISSNISSNISSN –– 2277227722772277 –– 1247124712471247
 
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF TOTALPHENOLIC, FLAVANOIDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF
TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI.
Katasani Damodar
1*
, Srinu Bhogineni
2
, Bala Ramanjaneyulu
3
 
1
Lecturer in Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Eritrea, North East Africa
2
Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, IIT Madras, India.
3
Lecture in Chemistry, Govt. Degree and PG College, S.K University, Ananthapur, AP, India.
Received on: 30-10-2011 Revised on: 26-11-2011 Accepted on: 10–12–2011Abstract:
Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventiveproperties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human bodyfor sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces these chemicals to protect themselves butrecent research demonstrate that they can also protect humans against diseases.
TRACHYSPERMUM TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI 
 
is also traditionally known as a digestive aid, arelief for abdominal discomfort due to indigestion and an antiseptic. The medicinal properties of theplant are due to the anti oxidants present in the plant. Present studies deals with the identification of phytochemicals and there quantitative estimation, antimicrobial activity of 
TRACHYSPERMUM  AMMI 
and its important medicinal qualities provided one does not play around with poisonousplants they are totally free of harmful side effects - unlike the modern drug industry.
Key Words:
Trachyspermum ammi,
Phytochemical screening, Anti oxidants, Anti microbial* Corresponding authorDamodar Katasani,Email: damodar.mscmed@gmail.comTel: 00291 – 7290501
 
Jamonline /Nov-Dec 1(1) /1–8 Damodar K
et al 
 
All rights reserved© 2011 www.jamonline.in 
2
Introduction:Kingdom
- Plantae
 Subkingdom
- Tracheobionta
Superdivision
- Spermatophyta
Division
- Magnoliophyta
Class
- Magnoliopsida
Subclass
- Rosidae
Order
- Apiales
Family
- Apiaceae
Genus
- Trachyspermum
Species
-Trachyspermum ammiThe use of local plants in folk medicalpractices has a long history. The resource baseof the traditional medical practices prevalentin rural and tribal villages of India and abroadis mainly the plants
(0)
. Medicinal plants areused to maintain and promote healthy life,prevent disease and cure ailments. It has beenestimated that even today, 80% of the worldpopulation rely on herbal traditional medicinefor their primary health care (Absar A.Qureshi
et al.,
2008). Traditional knowledgeof medicinal plants has always guided thesearch for new cures. In spite of the advent of modern high throughput drug discovery andscreening techniques, traditional knowledgesystems have given clues to the discovery of valuable drugs (Buenz
et 
 
al.,
2004).Traditional medicinal plants are oftencheaper, locally available and easilyconsumable, raw or as simple medicinalpreparations
(1)
. Nowadays, traditionalmedicinal practices form an integral part of complementary or alternative medicine.Although their efficacy and mechanism of action have not been tested scientifically inmost cases, these simple medicinalpreparations often mediate beneficialresponses due to their chemical constituents(Park and Puzzutto, 2002). Nowadays, moreemphasis is given on functional foods whichare being consumed as part of a usual diet butare demonstrated to have physiologicalbenefits and/ or reduce the risk of chronicdisease beyond basic nutritional functions.Spices are being used as food additives sinceancient times mostly for their organolepticattributes. It is now understood that spicesalso exhibit several beneficial physiologicaleffects in addition to enhancing taste andflavor of food (Chandrassekhara andSrinivasan, 1999). In this background, wehave planned to review traditional knowledge,phytochemical constituents and scientificvalidation of traditional claims of a very wellknow culinary spice i.e.
Trachyspermum
 
 
Jamonline /Nov-Dec 1(1) /1–8 Damodar K
et al 
 
All rights reserved© 2011 www.jamonline.in 
3
ammi
which is commonly known as Ajowan.Among traditional potential herbs used asspice in day to day life, ajwain(
Trachyspermum ammi
L.) belonging tofamily Apiaceae, is widely used for curingvarious diseases in both humans and animals.Its other names in literature are, ajwan,ajowan, Bishop’s wee, carom, or Ethiopeancumin. The most utilizes part of ajwain is thesmall caraway like fruit, which is particularlypopular in Indian savory recipes, savorypastries, snacks and as spice (Anilkumar
et al.,
2009).
Trachyspermum
 
ammi
is a grassy,annual plant which grows in the east of India,Iran and Egypt with a white flower and small,brownish seeds.
Plant description:
 
An erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent,branched annual, up to 90 cm., tall, cultivatedalmost throughout India. Stems striate; leavesrather distant, 2-3 pinnately divided, segmentslinear, ultimate segments 1.0-2.5 cm. long;flowers in terminal or seemingly-lateralpedunculate, compounds umbels, white,small; fruits ovoid, muricate, aromaticcremocrps, 2-3 mm. long, grayish brown;mericarp compressed, with distinct ridges andtubercular surface, 1-seeded. Flowers andfruits from January-April (Asima Chatterjee,1995 and Anonymous, 2003).
Materials and methods:
The seeds of 
Trachyspermum
 
ammi
arepurchased from local market and are gown ina fertile soil with sufficient water and nutrientsupply. The seeds are germinated in 5 daysand are grown up to 25 days. The all the plantplant parts are collected, washed, shade driedand is made powder mechanically and thepowder is used for the experimentalprocedure.
Preparation of extracts:
The powdered material was weighed in aselected quantity and is subjected to soxheltextraction using Methanol, Acetone ,chloroform and Hexane in successive moderespectively for 48 h. The solvent was thenrecovered using Rotary Vacuum Evaporatorand the concentrated extract was preserved inan airtight bottle. The crude extracts thusobtained were used for further investigationfor of Phytochemical screening, and Antimicrobial Evaluation
Phytochemical screening
(3,4,5,6)
:
The extracts of the dry powdered leaves of 
Trachyspermum
 
ammi
were analyzed for thepresence of various phytoconstituents likecarbohydrates, reducing sugars,monosaccharide (Evans, 1996), Tannins(Evans, 1996), Saponnins (Evans, 1996),Flavonoids(Shinoda’s Test ), Terpenes /steroids (Liebermann - Burchard’s Test),Alkaloids(Evans, 1996), Anthraquinones(Borntrager’s test), cardiac glucosides(sodium nitro proside method) proteins(copper sulphate and Folin Ciocalteausolution) and amino acids(Ninhydrin) were

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