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Abhishek Mishra ISBE a 10 12 LPG and the Indian Economy

Abhishek Mishra ISBE a 10 12 LPG and the Indian Economy

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Published by: Abhishek Mishra on Feb 19, 2012
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02/19/2012

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The New Industrial Policy, 1991
A number of significant economic changes introduced bymany a number of countries all the world over, the encouragingresults of the liberalization measures introduced in 1980s by theGovernment of India, and the precarious economic situation that prevailed during the later part 80s have encouraged and forcedthe then Congress government, which came back to power at thecenter, under the leadership of Shri. P. V. Narasimha Rao²anon - Nehru family member, to take some bold measures torejuvenate the economy and to accelerate the pace of development. In this background, the Government of Indiaannounced its New Industrial Policy (NIP or IP) on July 24,1991. The important objectives are: (a) to correct the distortionsthat may have crept in, and consolidate the strengths built on thegains already made, (b) to maintain sustained growth in the productivity and gainful employment, and (c) to attaininternational competitiveness. Therefore, the basic philosophy of the New IP, 1991 has been the continuity with change. Because,the new policy represents a renewed initiative towardsconsolidating the gains of national reconstruction at this crucialstage. But what is more important is the change (in continuitywith change)²change in the attitude of the state towards theindustrial society, change from centrally planned economy tomarket led economy, change from excessive governmentintervention to minimal intervention, change fromnationalization to privatization, change from subsidization andcross-subsidization to gradual withdrawal of subsidy, etc. But
 
these changes, which the government has introduced, represent asharp departure from the earlier industrial policies. Thesechanges pertain broadly to five areas viz., (a) Industriallicensing,(b) Public sector policy, (c) MRTP Act, 1969, (d) Foreigninvestment, and (e) Foreign technology agreements.
Industrial Licensing
 
This is one of the areas in which substantial change has been made by the government. With a view to give effect tothese changes, the government issued a notification on July 25,1991 and this notification has exempted the industrialundertakings from the operation of the following Sections of Industries Development and Regulations Act, 1951 subject tothe fulfillment of certain conditions.(a)
 
Section 10 (which deals with registration of existingindustrial undertakings);(b)
 
Section 11 (which is concerned with the licensing for new industrial undertakings); and(c)
 
Section 13 (which is concerned with the licensingrequirements for substantial expansion).Further, the second schedule appended to the notificationcited above lists the industries which are subject to mandatoryindustrial licensing. According to this notification, only 18industries were subject to compulsory industrial licensing.Further, five more industries have been excluded from the list of industries which are subject to compulsory industrial licensingsubsequently. That means, only 13 industries are now subject tocompulsory industrial licensing.
 
 
Public Sector Policy
 A large number of Public Sector Enterprises have failed toachieve at least a reasonable rate of success. Some of the factorswhich have contributed to this situation are over staffing andover managing, price and distributions controls, etc. Hence, thegovernment, in its Industrial Policy, 1991, introduced thenumber of significant changes pertaining to the PSEs. Some of the important changes envisaged by the New Policy aresummarized below.Prior to the announcement of New Industrial Policy, 1991,seventeen industries were reserved exclusively for the state for their future development. Further, with respect to another 12industries, the state was to play an important role by takinginitiative to establish new undertakings. Besides, the state had power to enter into any other area reserved for the private sector.However, the failure on the part of majority of PSEs has forcedthe government to review its earlier decision. Consequently, thegovernment in its New Industrial Policy, 1991 has pruned thelist of the industries reserved for the public sector to only 8.Further, the government has dereserved 2 more industries. As aresult, only six industries are now reserved for the public sector.They are: (a) Arms and ammunition and allied items of defenceequipment, aircraft and warships, (b) Atomic energy, (c) Coaland lignite, (d) Mineral oils, (e) Minerals specified in theschedule to the Atomic Energy Order, 1953, and (f) Railwaytransport. Hence, the focus of the public sector will be only onstrategic and high tech industries and on basic infrastructural projects. However the objective of the New Industrial Policy has

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