disabilities under which his people specially laboured, being cut off by their language from the people amongwhom they lived, while too proud to learn the language of their persecutors, he set himself to invent alanguage which should be neutral and therefore not require any sacrifice of pride on the part of any race.Interesting as is the story of Zamenhof's attempts and difficulties, it must suffice here to say that at the end of 1878 the new language was sufficiently advanced for him to impart it to schoolfellows like-minded withhimself, and on December 17th of that year they feted its birth, and sang a hymn in the new language,celebrating the reign of unity and peace which should be brought about by its means, "All mankind must beunited in one family." But the enthusiasm of its first followers died down under the derision they encountered,and for nine years more Zamenhof worked in secret at his language, translating, composing, writing originalarticles, improving, polishing, till in 1887 he published his first book under the title of "An InternationalLanguage by Dr. Esperanto." ("Esperanto" means "one who hopes").That the idea which impelled the young Zamenhof to undertake such a work is still the mainspring of hisdevotion to the cause is shown by the following extract from his opening speech at the second InternationalEsperanto Congress in 1906:--"We are all conscious that it is not the thought of its practical utility whichinspires us to work for Esperanto, but only the thought of the important and holy idea which underlies aninternational language. This idea, you all know, is that of: brotherhood and justice among all peoples." And,again, in his presidential address at the third Esperanto Congress, held this year (1907) at Cambridge, he said,"We are constantly repeating that we do not wish to interfere in the internal life of the nations, but only tobuild a bridge between the peoples. The ideal aim of Esperantists, never until now exactly formulated, butalways clearly felt, is: To establish a neutral foundation, on which the various races of mankind may holdpeaceful, brotherly intercourse, without intruding on each other their racial differences."Sur neuxtrala lingva fundamento, Komprenante unu la alian, La popoloj faros en konsento Unu grandanrondon familian.(On the foundation of a neutral language, Understanding one another, The peoples will form in agreementOne great family circle).HELEN FRYER.December, 1907.THE ALPHABET.SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.In Esperanto each letter has only one sound, and each sound is represented in only one way. The words arepronounced exactly as spelt, every letter being sounded.Those CONSONANTS which in English have one simple sound only are exactly the same in Esperanto; theyare--b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v, z (r must be well rolled).q, w, x, y are not used.c, g, h, s, which in English represent more than one sound, and j are also used with the mark ^--c cx, g gx, h hx, j jx, s sx.c - (whose two English sounds are represented by k and s) has the sound of TS, as in iTS, TSar.
The Esperanto Teacher3