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Chapter 2 - Introduction to Function

Chapter 2 - Introduction to Function

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Published by: Wan Muhammad Abdul Hakim on Feb 20, 2012
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QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 2 : Introduction To Function 44
 
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Ali invested RM
100
at a bank and earns simple interest rate at anannual rate of
6%
. The interest
 I 
(output) depends on how long thatthe money have been invested,
(input). Then it can be shown thatinterest and time are related by the formula:
 I 
=
100 (0.06)
 
Where
 I 
is in RM and
is in years. For example; in the first year Ali willearns:
 I 
=
100 (0.06)(1)
=
RM 6
from his investment.How much will Ali earns if he invested his money for 10 years??
 
As we can see, the interest
 I 
(output) depends on the length of time
(input) that Ali’s money is invested. To express this dependence, we saythat
 I 
“is a function of”
. Functional relations like this are usuallyspecified by a formula that shows what must be done to the input tofind the output. We can think of formula as defining “rule”:
multiply
by 100(0.06)
 The rule assigns to
each input
number 
exactly one
 
output
number 
 I 
,which we symbolize by the following arrow notation:
 
 
 I 
or 
100(0.06)
 
outputinput
Example 1:
FunctionFirst year:t = 1
 
QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 2 : Introduction To Function 45 
A
function
is a rule that assigns to each inputnumber 
exactly one
output number 
2.1
 
INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTION
Independent variable
- a variable that represents input numbers for a function . Eg :
in example 1
Dependent variable
- a variable that represents output numbersfor a function. Eg:
 I 
in example 1Given
2
+=
 x y
. Determine whether 
 y
is/isn’t a function of
 x
?Solution
 
if
1
=
 x
 
 
if
4
=
 x
 Therefore
Example 2:
 
The rules define/not define
 y
as a function of 
 x
.
 
QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 2 : Introduction To Function 46
 
Consider:
 x y
=
2
 Try to input
9
=
 x
into the given functionThen,Therefore
2.1.1 FUNCTIONAL NOTATION
Usually the letters
G F h g  f 
,,,,
and so on are used to representfunction rules. For example, the equation
 y = x + 2
defines
 y
as afunction of
 x 
, suppose we let
ƒ
represent this rule ( add 2 to the input).Then we say
ƒ
is the function. To indicate
ƒ
assigns the output
3
to theinput
1
, we write
ƒ
 
(1) = 3
, which is read “
ƒ
of
1
equals
3
”.Generally, if
 x 
is any input, we have the following notation:
ƒ
 
(
 x 
)(
read as :
“ƒ
of
 x 
)
 means the
output number that corresponds to the input number 
 
 x.
 
Example 3
The rule define/ do not define
 y
as a function of 
 
 x
.?
 

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