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Chapter 1 - Matrix

Chapter 1 - Matrix

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Published by: Wan Muhammad Abdul Hakim on Feb 20, 2012
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QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 1: Matrix 1
 
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX
A manufacturer produces 3 types of products; A, B and C. The units oflabor and material used to produce each product were shown in thetable below:
Product A Product B Product CLabor
15 7 3
Material
20 5 1The numerical information in the table can be arranged into arectangular block called
matrix.
 
15203715
RowColumn
MATRIX
is a rectangular array of numbers (
elements
) arranged in a formof rows and column.
 
Row – horizontal arrangement
 
Column – vertical arrangement
EXERCISE 1
For each matrix, identify the number of rows and columns.
a)
012123451
b)
500110312
c)
7538
d)
54
 e)
[ ]
0003
 
2 5 10 7 96 3 8
Example 1:
 
QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 1: Matrix 2
MATRIX 
is a
 
collection of 
elements
(numbers) arranged in
rows and columns
to form
a rectangular array
and enclosed by square bracket or parentheses.
Symbolically, we shall use capital letters such as A, B, C etcetera torepresent a matrix.For example,
 
=
mnmmm nnn
aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa  A
LMMMMM LLL
3213333231 2232221 1131211
 
 
Each number in the matrix is also known as
entry
or 
element
.
 
To denote arbitrary entries in a matrix, we may use a single letter along with appropriate double subscripts to indicate position.
 
Therefore, the entry at the first row and second column of matrixA will be denote as
12
a
(reads “a sub one-two”), where the firstsubscript specifies the row and the second subscript specify thecolumn in which the entry appears.
 
Generalizing, we say that the symbol
ij
a
denotes the entry in thei
th
row and j
th
column, where
mi
,...,2,1
=
and
n j
,...,2,1
=
.Therefore, we can represent the matrix from example 1(page 1), withcapital letter B
=
15203715
 B
 
 
QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 1: Matrix 3
A rectangular array of numbers consisting of 
m
 horizontal rows and 
n
vertical columns is called an
nm
×
matrix or a matrix of order 
nm
×
Order of a matrix
nm
×=
 
whereby the element on the first row and column of matrix B or 
15
11
=
b
,
7
12
=
b
. How about other elements,
23222113
,,,
bbbb
?
ORDER OF A MATRIX
For instance, in example 1,
=
15203715
 B
 
the matrix B have 2 rows and 3 columns. Therefore we called it a matrixof order 2 x 3.
m
– number of rows
n
– number of columns
 
For brevity, an
nm
×
matrix can be denoted by the symbol
mxnij
a
w
here the order is understood to be which isappropriate for the given context.
 
This notation merely indicates what types of symbols we are usingto denote the general entry.
 
In the case of matrix B, we can denote it as
32
 xij
b
 

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