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Chapter 7 - Different at Ion

# Chapter 7 - Different at Ion

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09/22/2014

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QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 7: Differentiation 170
7.1 THE CONCEPT OF DIFFERENTIATION
If
f
defined as the function of
x
and can be written as
( )
x f
.Then the derivative of
( )
x f
denoted as
( )
x f
or
dxdy
is read as‘derivative value of function
f
at
x
’. The
( )
x f
known as the FIRSTDIFFERENTIATION/ FIRST DERIVATIVE of
f

at
x
.
7.2

DIFFERENTIATION USING FIRST PRINCIPLE(The concept of limit)
Consider a function of
f
and assume that 2 points were at the curveof a function
f
, i.e
( )( )
x f  x A
,
=
and
( )( )
h x f h x B
++=
,

)(/
x f  y

x

h x
+

x

Chord (
AB)

P Q
f(x) f(x+h)(x , f(x)) =

A

((x+h), f(x+h)) =

B

Tangent (
PQ)

0
x ydxdy
δ  δ
,

QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 7: Differentiation 171
( )( ) ( )
h x f h x f   x f dxdy
h
+==
0
lim

From the diagram above,

The straight line
PQ
is called a tangent to function
f
at thepoint
x
.

The slope / gradient of tangent
PQ
is an approximation ofchord
AB
at that curve, i.e:Slope / Gradient of
( ) ( )( )
1
+=
h x f h x f   AB
When
0
h
, equation
( )
1
can be written as
( ) ( )( )
2lim
0
+
h x f h x f
h

f
at
x
equals to the gradient ofa tangent
PQ
(equation
( )
2
), then equation
( )
2
named as thefirst principle differentiation or derivative :If
( )
26
+=
x x f
, find
( )
x f
by using the first principledifferentiation method.Solution:By using:
( )( ) ( )( )
ah x f h x f   x f
h
+=
0
lim

Example 1:

QQM1023 Managerial MathematicsChapter 7: Differentiation 172
Given
( )
26
+=
x x f
, then
( ) ( )
26
++=+
h xh x f
Substitute
( ) ( )
26
++=+
h xh x f
in
( )
a

( )( ) ( )
h x f h x  x f
h
++=
26lim
0

( )( )
[ ]
h xh x x f
h
2626 lim
0
+++ =

( )
h xh x x f
h
26266 lim
0
++ =

( )
6lim6lim
00
==
hh
hh x f
Using the concept of limits,
66
0
=
h
, therefore ;
( )
6
=
x f
Find the first derivative (
( )
dxdyor  x f
) of the following functions byusing the first principle method:a)
( )
13
=
x x f
b)
1
2
=
x y

Step 1:Step 2:
Exercise: