Thomas Ogden received his B.A. from Amherst College in Massachusetts and his M.D. from Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, where he also did his psychiatric residency. He served for a year as an AssociatePsychiatrist at the Tavistock Clinic in London and did his analytic training at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Insti-tute in California, where he has remained on the faculty. Dr Ogden is a Supervising and Personal Analyst at thePsychoanalytic Institute of Northern California. He has for more than 25 years served as Director of the Center for theAdvanced Study of the Psychoses and at various times has been a member of the North American Editorial Board of
The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalytic Dialogues,
The Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic.
He is amember of the Standing Committee on the Psychoses of the International Psychoanalytical Association and a memberof the International Advisory Panel of
The Complete Works of Donald W. Winnicott.
Dr Ogden is the author of more than 50 papers in major psychoanalytic journals on topics as varied as OnPsychoanalytic Writing, On Psychoanalytic Supervision, Reverie and Metaphor: Some Thoughts On How I Work asa Psychoanalyst, Listening: Three Frost Poems, Borges and the Art of Mourning, The Concept of InterpretiveInteraction, On the Nature of Schizophrenic Conflict, and On Holding and Containing, Being and Dreaming. He isthe author of seven books, and his books and papers have been published in more than 17 languages.Dr Ogdens honours include the 2004
International Journal of Psychoanalysis
Award for the Most Important Paper of the Year, the William C. Menninger Award of the Central Neuropsychiatric Association, and the Seymour L. LustmanMemorial Psychiatric Research Prize.During the past decade, Ogdens concepts of the analytic third and the analysts reverie have become increasinglyimportant and widely discussed topics, and he has supplied important new dimensions to the discussions of intersubjectivity and counter-transference.The following is Dr Ogdens statement concerning the place of his work in American psychoanalysis:
The papers I wrote in my first 10 years of analytic writing (1974-1984) were papers that both introduced Americanpsychoanalysts to British psychoanalytic thinkingprimarily the work of Klein, Winnicott, Fairbairn, and Bionbut alsoserved as a vehicle for the development of my own ideas.In my 1979 paper On Projective Identification, and in my books
Projective Identification and PsychotherapeuticTechnique
The Matrix of the Mind: Object Relations and the Psychoanalytic Dialogue,
I was not simply explaining theideas of Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, and Bion to an audience that had almost no familiarity with their work, I was creatingmy own version of ideas that they introduced. My idea of projective identification was not, and still is not, what a BritishKleinian would endorse. I view projective identification as an unconscious intra-psychic/interpersonal process, whereasthe London Kleinians (despite the work of Bion and Rosenfeld) still view it almost entirely as an intra-psychic process.Similarly, I have tried to invent anew many of Winnicotts, Fairbairns, and Bions ideas. A reviewer of
The Matrix of theMind
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly
complained that he could not tell where Kleins, Winnicotts, and Fairbairns ideasended and where mine began. I took it as the highest compliment he could have paid me.In the years that followed (1984-1989), I wrote about what I refer to as the autistic-contiguous position, a mode of generating experience that is equally important as, but more primitive than, the paranoid-schizoid and depressivepositions. It is an almost entirely sensation-dominated form of experiencing in which there is no inside or outside, onlysurfaces and perimeters. These contributions made use of the work of Tustin, Bick, and Meltzer as starting points for thedevelopment of my own ideas. The papers I wrote during this period were collected in my book
The Primitive Edge of Experience.
Between 1989 and 2001, an important focus of my thinking and writing was on the place in the analytic process of reverieand the analytic third. During these years I wrote a good deal on how we communicate in the analytic setting (i.e., the waywe convey our thoughts and feelings through the effects that we create in our use of language). In other words, style(voice, tone, use of metaphor and so on) on the one hand, and content, on the other, are inseparable. I have explored thisby looking closely at the poetry of Frost, Heaney, and Stevens as well as the fictions of Borges. My books
Subjects of Analysis, Reverie and Interpretation: Sensing Something Human,
Conversations at the Frontier of Dreaming
present these aspects of my analytic thinking.My new book,
This Art of Psychoanalysis: Dreaming Undreamt Dreams and Interrupted Cries,
is published in the NewLibrary of Psychoanalysis series. This work builds upon the entirety of my writing up to this point. In the papers collectedin this book, I offer a re-vised conception of the place of dreaming in analytic theory and its role in analytic practice. Fol-lowing Bion, I view dreaming (which continues both while we are awake and asleep) as synonymous with unconsciouspsychological work. The aim of psychoanalysis, from this perspective, is to assist the patient in dreaming his or her livedexperience more fully.Central to psychoanalysis, as I conceive of it, is the analysts participation in dreaming the patients undreamt andinterrupted dreams. Interrupted dreams (metaphorical nightmares) are emotional experiences with which the patient is able to dream (to do genuine unconscious psychological work) up to a point. However, past a certain point, the patientsdreaming is disruptedthe capacity for dreaming is overwhelmed by the disturbing nature of what is being dreamt. At that point the patient wakes up, that is, ceases to be able to do unconscious psychological work (e.g., as seen in a childsplay disruption). The place at which dreaming ceases is marked by the creation of neurotic and other forms of non-psychotic symptomatology. By contrast, undreamt dreams are emotional experiences with which the patient is able to do