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Pakitsan A Federation

Pakitsan A Federation

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Published by Ali Raza Sahni

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Published by: Ali Raza Sahni on Feb 20, 2012
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03/13/2012

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Pakistan
 – 
A Federal StatePage| 1
 A Political Science Approach by Ali Raza Sahni
Pakistan
 – 
A Federal State
“We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and 
which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles
of Islamic social justice could find free play”
 
(Quaid 
 – 
 – 
Azam, Oct 11
th
 , 1947)
 A Political Science Approach by
…!
 
Ali Raza Sahni
 
Pakistan
 – 
A Federal StatePage| 2
 A Political Science Approach by Ali Raza Sahni
Pakistan
 – 
A Federal State
"The foundations of your State have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can"
(Quaid 
 – 
 – 
Azam, Aug 14
th
 , 1948)
Pakistan
Pakistan (
ن  ک پ
), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (
یمس ا
 
ۂ رہج
 
ن  ک پ
) is a sovereign country in South Asia. Bounded by a1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south, it is bordered by India in the east, Afghanistan inthe west and north, Iran in the southwest and China in the far northeast,while Tajikistan is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor in thenorth. In addition, Oman is also located in maritime vicinity and shares amarine border with Pakistan. Strategically, Pakistan is situated at thecrossroads of the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and theMiddle East.
Official Name: Islamic Republic of PakistanCapital: IslamabadFounded By: Muhammad Ali Jinnah
 – 
The GreatOfficial Language: Urdu and English (Pakistani)Regional Languages: Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki, and SindhiGovernment: Federal Parliamentary RepublicPresident: Mr. Asif Ali ZardariPrime Minister: Mr. Syed Yousaf Raza GillaniChair of Senate: Mr. Farooq H. Naek House Speaker: Mrs. Fahmida MirzaLegislature: Majlis
 – 
E
 – 
ShooraUpper House: Senate (Aywan
 – 
E
 – 
 
Bal’aa)
 Lower House: National Assembly (Parliament)Formation Concept In: Dec 29
th
, 1930National Declaration: Jan 28
th
, 1933Pakistan Resolution: March 23
rd
, 1940Domino Status: United Kingdom (Great Britain)Independence Day: Aug 14
th
, 1974Constitutional Day: March 23
rd
, 1956
 
Pakistan
 – 
A Federal StatePage| 3
 A Political Science Approach by Ali Raza Sahni
Administrative Units of Pakistan
The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, one federal capital territory, twoautonomous territories and a group of federally administered tribal areas. Below this top tier, thereare four more tiers of government including 27 divisions, more than a hundred districts (zillas),more than four hundred sub-districts called tehsils, and several thousand union councils.The administrative units as of 2010 derived from the administrative units inherited from BritishIndia. From independence in 1947 to 1971, Pakistan comprised two "wings" separated by 1600kilometers of Indian Territory. The eastern wing comprised the single province of East Bengalwhich included the Sylhet District from the former Indian province of Assam. The western wingwas formed from three full provinces (Hazara (then NWFP), West Punjab and Sind), one Chief Commissioner's Province (Baluchistan), thirteen princely states and parts of Kashmir. In 1948, thearea around Karachi was separated from Sind province to form the Federal Capital Territory. In1950 Hazara (then NWFP) province was expanded to include the small states of Amb and Phulraand the name of West Punjab was changed to Punjab. The four princely states of southwestPakistan formed the Baluchistan States Union in 1952.The One Unit policy in was enforced in 1955, whereby the provinces and princely states of thewestern wing were merged to form the new province of West Pakistan with Lahore as theprovincial capital. Simultaneously East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka as theprovincial capital. In 1960 the federal capital was moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi and thenIslamabad when it was completed, followed in 1961 by the merger of the Federal Capital Territoryinto West Pakistan.The One Unit policy was intended to reduce expenditure and eliminate provincial prejudices, butthe military coup of 1958 signaled difficulties when the first military President, Ayub Khan,abolished the office of Chief Minister of West Pakistan in favor of Governor's rule. West Pakistanwas dissolved in 1970 by the second military President, Yahya Khan, and four new provinces werecreated. East Pakistan became independent in December 1971 as the new country of Bangladesh.In 1974 the last of the princely states (Hunza and Nagar) were finally abolished and their territorymerged with the Gilgit Agency to form the Northern Areas (now known as Gilgit-Baltistan). TheFederally Administered Tribal Areas were formed from parts of Hazara, districts of Peshawar andDera Ismail Khan in 1975. The status of the Islamabad area was changed to a capital territory in1981.In August 2000 the "divisions" were abolished as part of a plan to restructure local government,followed by elections in 2001. Many of the functions previously handled by the provinces havebeen transferred to the districts and tehsils. In 2008, the new civilian government restored theformer tier of "divisions" and appointed commissioners for each one.

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