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ReasoningLecture1W-12

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Reasoning Lecture – 1

NUMBER SERIES
TYPES:
1. Prime number Series:Ex.1
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, …(1) 15 (2) 17 (3) 18 (4) 19
Sol.
The given series is prime number series. The next prime number is 17.

Ex.2
2, 5, 11, 17, 23, …, 41.(1) 29 (2) 31 (3) 37 (4) 39
Sol.
The prime numbers are written alternately.

2. Difference Series:

Ex.1
2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17,…, 23.(1) 19 (2) 21 (3) 20 (4) 18
Sol.
The difference between the numbers is 3. (17 + 3 = 20)

Ex.2
45, 38, 31, 24, 17,…, 3.(1) 12 (2) 14 (3) 10 (4) 9
Sol.
The difference between the numbers is 7. (17 – 7 = 10)

3. Multiplication Series:

Ex.1
2, 6, 18, 54, 162,…, 1458.(1) 274 (2) 486 (3) 1236 (4) 1032
Sol.
The numbers are multiplied by 3 to get next number. (162
×
3 = 486)

Ex.2
3, 12, 48, 192,…, 3072.(1) 768 (2) 384 (3) 2376 (4) 1976
Sol.
The numbers are multiplied by 4 to get the next number. (192
×
4 = 768)

4. Division Series:

Ex.1
720, 120, 24,…, 2, 1(1) 12 (2) 18 (3) 20 (4) 6
Sol.
6720= 120,5120= 24,424= 6,36= 2,22= 1.

Ex.2
32, 48, 72, 108,…, 243.(1) 130 (2) 162 (3) 192 (4) 201
Sol.
Number
×
3/2 = next number. 32
×
23= 48, 48
×
23= 72, 72
×
23= 108, 108
×
23= 162

5. n
2
Series:

Ex.1
1, 4, 9, 16, 25,…, 49(1) 28 (2) 30 (3) 32 (4) 36
Sol.
The series is 1
2
, 2
2
, 3
2
, 4
2
, 5
2
…, The next number is 6
2
= 36.

Ex.2
0, 4, 16, 36, 64,…, 144.(1) 100 (2) 84 (3) 96 (4) 120
Sol.
The series is 0
2
, 2
2
, 4
2
, 6
2
etc. The next number is 10
2
= 100.

6. n
2
– 1 Series:

Ex.1
0, 3, 8, 15, 24, 35, 48,…(1) 60 (2) 62 (3) 63 (4) 64
Sol.
The series is 1
2
– 1, 2
2
– 1, 3
2
– 1 etc. The next number is 8
2
– 1 = 63.

Another Logic:
Difference between numbers is 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 etc.The next number is (48 + 15 = 63).
7. n
2
+ 1 Series:

Ex.1
2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37,…, 65.(1) 50 (2) 48 (3) 49 (4) 51
Sol.
The series is 1
2
+ 1, 2
2
+ 1, 3
2
+ 1 etc. The next number is 7
2
+ 1 = 50.

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8. n
2
+ n Series (or) n
2
– n Series:

Ex.1
2, 6, 12, 20,…, 42.(1) 28 (2) 30 (3) 32 (4) 36
Sol.
The series is 1
2
+ 1, 2
2
+ 2, 3
2
+ 3, 4
2
+ 4 etc. The next number = 5
2
+ 5 = 30.

Another Logic:
The series is 1
×
2, 2
×
3, 3
×
4, 4
×
5. The next number is 5
×
6 = 30.
Another Logic:
The series is 2
2
– 2, 3
2
– 3, 4
2
– 4, 5
2
– 5. The next number is 6
2
– 6 = 30.
9. n
3
Series:

Ex.1
1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216,…(1) 256 (2) 343 (3) 365 (4) 400
Sol.
The series is 1
3
, 2
3
, 3
3
etc. The missing number is 7
3
= 343.

10. n
3
+ 1 Series:

Ex.1
2, 9, 28, 65, 126, 217, 344,…(1) 513 (2) 500 (3) 428 (4) 600
Sol.
The series is 1
3
+ 1, 2
3
+ 1, 3
3
+ 1 etc. The missing number is 8
3
+ 1 = 513.

LETTER SERIES
Introduction:
In these types of problems a series of the letters of alphabet will be given which follow a pattern or a sequence. The letterseries mainly consists of skipping of the letters.To solve these types of problems, assign numbers 1 to 26 to the letters of the alphabet as shown below. In some cases itis useful to assign the numbers in the reverse order
.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
A B C D
E
F G H
J
K L
Y
X W V U
T
S R Q P
O
26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14Here the table is showing both forward as well as reverse place value of any alphabet. A very important fact about theposition of any alphabet is that both the sum of forward position and reverse position for any alphabet is always constantand equal to 27. Such as Sum of both positions of H is (8 + 19 = 27) or for W is (23 + 4 = 27).We can also remember the relative positions of these alphabets by just remembering the word
EJOTY.

Letters

E J O T YPosition
5
th
10
th
15
th
20
th
25
th
Just remember the word EJOTY and its values i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25e.g. If you are asked to complete the series F, K, P, U, __ Then from EJOTY, you know that values of F = 6, K = 11, P = 16, U = 21 i.e. difference is 5, so the answer should be 21 +5 = 26 i.e. ZVarious types of letter series are given below.
TYPE – 1
One Letter Series:

Ex.1
A, C, E, G, I, …(1) J (2) K (3) L (4) M
Sol.
The series is (+ 2). i.e., A + 2 = C; C + 2 = E; E + 2 = G;G + 2 = I.The missing letter is I + 2 = K.

Another Logic:
Skip one letter is I + 2 = K.After I skip J to get K; the missing letter is K.
Note:
"Skip" process saves time.

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Ex.2 A, B, D, G, K, ...…
(1) P (2) N (3) O (4) L
Sol.
The series is + 1, + 2, + 3 etc.The missing letter is (K + 5) = P.

Skip Process:
First no letter is skipped, then 1, 2, 3 etc. letters are skipped to get next letter. Skip 4 letters after 'K'to get P.
Ex.3

B, E, H, K, N,…(1) P (2) O (3) Q (4) R
Sol.
The series is + 3. The missing letter is N + 3 = Q.

Another Logic:
Skip two letters to get the next letter. Skip Q, P after N to get Q.The missing letter is Q.
Ex.4
B, D, G, I, L, N,…(1) N (2) O (3) P (4) Q
Sol.
The series is alternately + 2 and + 3. The missing letter is N + 3 = Q.

Another Logic:
Skip one and two letters alternately to get the next letter. Skip two letters O, P after N to get Q.
Ex.5
B, C, E, G, K,…(1) M (2) N (3) O (4) P
Sol.
If numbers are assigned, the series becomes prime number series.The next prime number is 13 and the corresponding letter is M.
A, E, I, O,…(1) Q (2) R (3) U (4) S
Sol.
The series is a series of Vowels.

Ex.7
A, D, I, P,…(1) U (2) V (3) X (4) Y
Sol.
If numbers are assigned, the series becomes square series.The next number is 5
2
= 25 and the corresponding letter is Y.

Ex.8
D, F, H, I, J, L,…(1) M (2) N (3) O (4) P
Sol.
If numbers are assigned, the series becomes composite number series.The next composite number is 14 and the corresponding letter is N.

Ex.9
A, Z, B, Y, C, X, D,…(1) U (2) V (3) W (4) X
Sol.
The sequence consists of two series A, B, C, D etc., and Z, Y, X, W etc.

TYPE – 2
Two Letter Series:

The first letters of the series follow one logic and the second letters follow another logic. Also, the first two letters, the nexttwo letters and so on follow a logic.
Ex.1
AM, BN, CO, DP, EQ,…(1) FG (2) FR (3) GR (4) ER
Sol.
The first letters are A, B, C, D, E, F and the second letters are M, N, O, P, Q and R.

Ex.2
AB, DE, GH, JK, MN,…(1) OP (2) NO (3) PQ (4) RS
Sol.
After every set of letters one letter is skipped. Skip O to get next two letters PQ.

Ex.3
AA, CE, EI, GO,…(1) IU (2) IQ (3) IR (4) IT
Sol.
The first letters follow a sequence of A, C, E, G, I. (+ 2 series) and the second letters are vowels.