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Tool kitRatings: (0)|Views: 266|Likes: 8

Published by Jain Abhishek

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/82261232/Tool-kit

04/21/2013

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__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

www.TCYonline.com

Page : 1

®

Top Careers & You

QUANT-TOOL KIT

NUMBERS

Types of Numbers:

Natural numbers (Positive integers) : 1, 2, 3, 4,....Whole numbers (Non-negative integers) : 0, 1, 2,

3,....Negative integers :

−

1,

−

2,

−

3,....Integers : ....,

−

2,

−

1, 0,1, 2,.....Even numbers : ....,

−

2, 0, 2, 4,.... (2n)Odd numbers : .....,

−

3,

−

1,1, 3,... (2n + 1)Prime numbers (exactly 2 factors) : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,....Composite numbers (more than 2 factors) : 4, 6, 8, 9,10,....Perfect numbers (Sum of all the factors is twice the number) : 6, 28, 496, ..Co-primes (relative primes) (Two numbers whose HCF is 1) : 2 & 3, 8 & 9,..Twin primes (Two prime numbers whose difference is 2) : 3 & 5, 5 & 7,.Rational numbers (

qp

form, p & q are integers, q

≠

0 ) :

32

,

23

, 2, 0.5,..Irrational numbers (which cannot be represented in the form of a fraction):

2

,

3

5

, e,

π

, 0.231764735...)Decimal Numbers : 0.2, 1.25, 0.3333….Terminating Decimal Numbers (which terminates) : 0.23, 2.374, ….Non Terminating Decimal Numbers (Which doesn’t terminate) : 0.33…., 0.121212…, 0.2317…Pure Recurring Decimals (All the figures after decimal point repeats) : 0.33…., 0.121212…Mixed Recurring Decimals (Some figures after decimal repeats) : 0.245555…, 0. 2343434…

Pure recurring decimal to fraction conversion

Ex. 0.ababab ….. =

99ab

Mixed recurring decimal to fraction conversion

Ex. 0.abcbcbc … =

990aabc

−

→

1 is the neither prime, nor composite.

→

2 is the only even prime.

→

If x & y are two integers, then (x + y) ! is divisible by x !. y!

→

The product of ‘n’ consecutive numbers is divisible by n!.

→

(x

n

+ y

n

) is divisible by (x + y), when n is an odd number.

→

(x

n

– y

n

) is divisible by (x + y)(x – y), when n is an even number.

→

(x

n

– y

n

) is divisible by (x – y), when n is an odd number.

→

The difference between 2 numbers (xy) – (yx) will always be divisible by 9.

Some Important points:

→

Every number ‘N’ can be written as N = a

p

×

b

q

×

c

r

…. . (a, b, c,…. are prime numbers.)

→

If p, q, r ……. are even, ‘N’ is a perfect square.

→

If p, q, r are multiples of 3, ‘N’ is a perfect cube.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Top Careers & You

→

Number of factors of N = (p+ 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) …..

→

Sum of the factors of N =

⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ −−+⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ −−+

1b11qb1a11pa

….

→

Number of co – primes of ‘N’ , which are less than N = N

( )

)b/11(a/11

−−

….

→

Sum of these co-primes =

N

2

×

N (1 – 1/a) (1 – 1/b)….

→

Numbers of ways of writing ‘N’ as a product of 2 co-primes = 2

n – 1

, n is the number of different primenumbers in ‘N’

→

If n is a prime number, (n –1)! +1 is divisible by n.

→

If n is a natural number and p is a prime number, then (n

p

–n) is divisible by p

→

The last digit of the powers of 2,3,7,8 repeats after every 4

th

power.

→

The last digit of any power of 0,1, 5,6 is always 0,1,5, 6 respectively.

→

The last digit of the powers of 4 and 9 repeats after every 2

nd

power.

→

The last two digits of any number is the remainder obtained by dividing that number by 100.

Divisibility Rules:

2 or 5

→

check last digit.4 or 25

→

check the last two digits.3 or 9

→

check the sum of the digits.11

→

check the difference of (sum of the digits in the even places) and (the sum of digits in odd places)

LCM / HCF

HCF = Highest Common Factor LCM = Least Common MultipleLCM of fractions =torsmindenoof HCF
numeratorsof LCM HCF of fractions =atorsmindenoof LCM
numeratorsof HCF Product of two numbers = L.C.M.

×

H.C.F.If HCF (a, b) = H

1

and HCF (c, d) = H

2

, then HCF (a, b, c, d) = HCF (H

1

, H

2

).If LCM (a, b) = L

1

and LCM (c, d) = L

2

, then LCM (a, b, c, d) = LCM (L

1

, L

2

).

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

www.TCYonline.com

Page : 3

®

Top Careers & You

IMPORTANT RESULTS

Sr No. Type of Problem Approach of Problem

1. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will

exactly

divide x, y, z.H.C.F. of x, y, and z (greatest divisor).2.Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and zleaving remainders a, b and c respectively. H.C.F. of (x – a), (y – b) and (z – c).3.Find the LEAST NUMBER which is

exactly

divisible by x, yand z.Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and(least multiple).4.Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and zleaves the remainders a, b and c respectively.Then, it is always observed that (x- a)= (z – b) = (z – c) = K (say).

∴

Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) – (K).5.Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and zleaves the same remainder ‘r’ each case. L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r.6.Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and zleaving the same remainder in each case. H.C.F. of (x – y), (y – z) and (z – x).

AVERAGE

→

Average =itemsof Number itemsof Sum

→

Weighted average of x

1

, x

2, ….

x

n,

which are in the ratio r

1

: r

2

……. r

n

is.

n21nn2211

r .....r r
xr .....xr xr

++++++

→

The average of consecutive numbers or the numbers which are in A.P is the middle number or theaverage of the first and the last number.

→

If each number is increased / decreased/ multiplied/ divided by a number ‘k’, the average is alsoincreased/ decreased/ multiplied/ divided by k.

PERCENTAGE

% change =

V.IV.I.V.F

−

x 100 Where F.V = Final value I.V = Initial value

Percentage to Fraction conversions:

100%

21

= 50%

=

3133.33%

41

= 25%

=

11

51= 20%61= 16.67%

71

= 14.28%81= 12.5%91= 11.11%101= 10%

111

= 9.09%

121

= 8.33%131= 7.69%

141

= 7.14%151= 6.66%.161

=

6.25%If a quantity increases by x %, it becomes (1 +

100x

) times.

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