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Tool kit

# Tool kit

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04/21/2013

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www.TCYonline.com
Page : 1
®
Top Careers & You

QUANT-TOOL KIT
NUMBERS
Types of Numbers:
Natural numbers (Positive integers) : 1, 2, 3, 4,....Whole numbers (Non-negative integers) : 0, 1, 2,

3,....Negative integers :
1,
2,
3,....Integers : ....,
2,
1, 0,1, 2,.....Even numbers : ....,
2, 0, 2, 4,.... (2n)Odd numbers : .....,
3,
1,1, 3,... (2n + 1)Prime numbers (exactly 2 factors) : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,....Composite numbers (more than 2 factors) : 4, 6, 8, 9,10,....Perfect numbers (Sum of all the factors is twice the number) : 6, 28, 496, ..Co-primes (relative primes) (Two numbers whose HCF is 1) : 2 & 3, 8 & 9,..Twin primes (Two prime numbers whose difference is 2) : 3 & 5, 5 & 7,.Rational numbers (
qp
form, p & q are integers, q
0 ) :
32
,
23
, 2, 0.5,..Irrational numbers (which cannot be represented in the form of a fraction):
2
,
3
5
, e,
π
, 0.231764735...)Decimal Numbers : 0.2, 1.25, 0.3333….Terminating Decimal Numbers (which terminates) : 0.23, 2.374, ….Non Terminating Decimal Numbers (Which doesn’t terminate) : 0.33…., 0.121212…, 0.2317…Pure Recurring Decimals (All the figures after decimal point repeats) : 0.33…., 0.121212Mixed Recurring Decimals (Some figures after decimal repeats) : 0.245555…, 0. 2343434
Pure recurring decimal to fraction conversion
Ex. 0.ababab ….. =
99ab

Mixed recurring decimal to fraction conversion
Ex. 0.abcbcbc … =
990aabc

1 is the neither prime, nor composite.
2 is the only even prime.
If x & y are two integers, then (x + y) ! is divisible by x !. y!
The product of ‘n’ consecutive numbers is divisible by n!.
(x
n
+ y
n
) is divisible by (x + y), when n is an odd number.
(x
n
– y
n
) is divisible by (x + y)(x – y), when n is an even number.
(x
n
– y
n
) is divisible by (x – y), when n is an odd number.
The difference between 2 numbers (xy) – (yx) will always be divisible by 9.
Some Important points:
Every number ‘N’ can be written as N = a
p

×
b
q

×
c
…. . (a, b, c,…. are prime numbers.)
If p, q, r ……. are even, ‘N’ is a perfect square.
If p, q, r are multiples of 3, ‘N’ is a perfect cube.

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Top Careers & You

Number of factors of N = (p+ 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) …..
Sum of the factors of N =
⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ + ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ +
1b11qb1a11pa
….
Number of co – primes of ‘N’ , which are less than N = N
( )
)b/11(a/11
….
Sum of these co-primes =
2

×
N (1 – 1/a) (1 – 1/b)….
Numbers of ways of writing ‘N’ as a product of 2 co-primes = 2
n – 1
, n is the number of different primenumbers in ‘N’
If n is a prime number, (n –1)! +1 is divisible by n.
If n is a natural number and p is a prime number, then (n
p
–n) is divisible by p
The last digit of the powers of 2,3,7,8 repeats after every 4
th
power.
The last digit of any power of 0,1, 5,6 is always 0,1,5, 6 respectively.
The last digit of the powers of 4 and 9 repeats after every 2
nd
power.
The last two digits of any number is the remainder obtained by dividing that number by 100.
Divisibility Rules:
2 or 5
check last digit.4 or 25
check the last two digits.3 or 9
check the sum of the digits.11
check the difference of (sum of the digits in the even places) and (the sum of digits in odd places)
LCM / HCF
HCF = Highest Common Factor LCM = Least Common MultipleLCM of fractions =torsmindenoof HCF numeratorsof LCM HCF of fractions =atorsmindenoof LCM numeratorsof HCF Product of two numbers = L.C.M.
×
H.C.F.If HCF (a, b) = H
1
and HCF (c, d) = H
2
, then HCF (a, b, c, d) = HCF (H
1
, H
2
).If LCM (a, b) = L
1
and LCM (c, d) = L
2
, then LCM (a, b, c, d) = LCM (L
1
, L
2
).

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Page : 3
®
Top Careers & You

IMPORTANT RESULTS
Sr No. Type of Problem Approach of Problem
1. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will
exactly
divide x, y, z.H.C.F. of x, y, and z (greatest divisor).2.Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and zleaving remainders a, b and c respectively. H.C.F. of (x a), (y b) and (z c).3.Find the LEAST NUMBER which is
exactly
divisible by x, yand z.Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and(least multiple).4.Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and zleaves the remainders a, b and c respectively.Then, it is always observed that (x- a)= (z – b) = (z – c) = K (say).
Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) – (K).5.Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and zleaves the same remainder ‘r’ each case. L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r.6.Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and zleaving the same remainder in each case. H.C.F. of (x y), (y z) and (z x).
AVERAGE
Average =itemsof Number itemsof Sum
Weighted average of x
1
, x
2, ….
x
n,
which are in the ratio r
1
: r
2
……. r
n
is.
n21nn2211
..... x.....xx
++++++

The average of consecutive numbers or the numbers which are in A.P is the middle number or theaverage of the first and the last number.
If each number is increased / decreased/ multiplied/ divided by a number ‘k’, the average is alsoincreased/ decreased/ multiplied/ divided by k.
PERCENTAGE
% change =
V.IV.I.V.F
x 100 Where F.V = Final value I.V = Initial value
Percentage to Fraction conversions:
100%
21
= 50%
=
3133.33%
41
= 25%
=
11
51= 20%61= 16.67%
71
= 14.28%81= 12.5%91= 11.11%101= 10%
111
= 9.09%
121
= 8.33%131= 7.69%
141
= 7.14%151= 6.66%.161
=
6.25%If a quantity increases by x %, it becomes (1 +
100x
) times.