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WHY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IS REGARDED AS THE STARTING POINT IN THE HISTORY OFTHE MODERN WORLD?
The French revolutions was outwardly a revolt against monarchy, but the aim of bringing about socialequality was the underlying inspirations
This is why the French revolution is regarded as the starting
point of history of the modern world.
WHAT IS MEANT BY A REVOLUTION? (MAR 2008)
A Revolution means a fundamental change brought about intentionally.
People are aroused to action when a certain social system inflicts injustice, either on an individual or thesociety as a whole and tries to thwart (spoil) social development.
Such action in the form of a revolt destroys the old system and replaces it with a new system based onnew values.
In other words, a revolution is a social struggle against injustice.
HOW WAS THE FRENCH SOCIETY DIVIDED BEFORE THE REVOLUTION?
Before the revolution, The French society was divided into
three social classes
: The first Estate, thesecond estate and the third estate, in the descending order
The first estate consisted of higher order of priests and clergy.
Nobles and landlords were included in the second estate.
First two classes together accounted for only
percent of the French population.
percent constituted the third estates. Merchants, lawyers, doctors, teachers, craftsman,farmers and serfs included in the third estates.
EXPLAIN THE ROUSSEAU
‟S CONCEPT OF THE ST
Rousseau, one of the outstanding thinkers of the world is regarded as an inspiration behind the FrenchRevolution
ccording to Rousseau, the society creates a ‗Political‘ state‘ for a stable life.
The state is not a divine creation but is the outcome of a sort of unwritten social contract.
f the state failed to abide by the terms of the contract, people have natural and moral rights tooverthrow the state authority.
HOW DID LOUIS XVI TRY TO IMPROVE THE CONDITIONS IN FRANCE?
crowned as a French monarch when France faced extreme financial crises.
had made an honest effort to bring France out of the financial difficulties with the help of hisfinance ministers Turgot, Necker and Calonne.
He had convened a meeting of the nobles and put before them his finance ministers‘ proposal to levy
taxes on the noble.
He had also explained to them the difficulties the country would face if the proposal was not accepted.
The nobles, however, were adamant and refused to accept the proposal, Louis XVI convened the Estates
General, the representative‘s body of all t
he three classes in France.
WHICH PRINCIPLES WERE PROCLAIMED
BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN THE
„DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS‟?
In the declaration of human Rights the National Assembly proclaimed the principles of liberty,equality and Fraternity.
These principles not only served as the basis of the French Constitution but also provided avalue structure to the mankind.
WHAT CONDITIONS LAID THE FOUNDATIONS OF CAPITALIST ECONOMY IN EUROPE?
With the discovery of new-routes, a number of European merchants came forward to trade with theeastern countries.
Trading companies with share capital contributed by different individuals were formed.
The rulers also gave military protection to merchant ships and granted trade concessions too.
Wealth began to accumulate in Europe.
These conditions laid the foundation of