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Altair's Student Guides - A Designer's Guide to Finite Element Analysis

# Altair's Student Guides - A Designer's Guide to Finite Element Analysis

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Designed for use by Engineering Students, this book provides background reading for use with Altair's Radioss. Together with the accompanying Projects and their Instructor's Manual, it provides a quick, complete and correct introduction to using this software to build, solve and review Finite Element Models for linear analysis.

For more learning resources on HyperWorks and CAE, for both students and teachers, see http://www.altair-india.com/edu/students
Designed for use by Engineering Students, this book provides background reading for use with Altair's Radioss. Together with the accompanying Projects and their Instructor's Manual, it provides a quick, complete and correct introduction to using this software to build, solve and review Finite Element Models for linear analysis.

For more learning resources on HyperWorks and CAE, for both students and teachers, see http://www.altair-india.com/edu/students

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07/16/2014

A Designer’s Guide To Finite Element Analysis Contents
1
Contents
Introduction......................................................................................................2

Supporting Material........................................................................................2

FEA – What It Is … And What It Isn’t..................................................................4

Typical Usage.................................................................................................4

Limitations.....................................................................................................5

Learning FEA..................................................................................................8

The Importance Of Computing Power..............................................................9

Mechanics, Mathematics, And Other Theory......................................................10

Solid Mechanics............................................................................................11

Thermal Analysis..........................................................................................23

Fatigue And Fracture....................................................................................26

Mathematics................................................................................................28

Essential FEA Theory.......................................................................................38

From The Differential Equation To A Matrix Equation......................................38

Nodes, Elements And Shape Functions..........................................................43

Some Common Elements Used In Stress Analysis...........................................45

Matrix Solvers..............................................................................................47

Some Important Properties Of The FE Solution..............................................50

Putting It Together OptiStruct/Analysis..........................................................52

Capabilities..................................................................................................52

Setting Up An “Analysis”...............................................................................57

Nomenclature and Data Organization............................................................61

Verification And Validation................................................................................65

Product Liability Laws...................................................................................66

The Seductive Appeal Of Graphics.................................................................66

Quick and Basic Checks................................................................................67

Special Topics.................................................................................................70

Glossary And References..................................................................................74

References...................................................................................................77

Common Material Properties.........................................................................77

Useful Data For Heat Transfer.......................................................................79

Consistent Units...........................................................................................81

Lumped Mass Models In Vehicle-Crash Simulation..........................................81

Measures Of Element Quality........................................................................82

Introduction A Designer’s Guide To Finite Element Analysis
2
Introduction
To make the most of this series you should be an engineering student, inyour third or final year of Mechanical Engineering. You should have accessto licenses of HyperWorks, to the Altair website, and to an instructor whocan guide you through your chosen projects or assignments.Each book in this series is completely self-contained. References to othervolumes are only for your interest and further reading. You need not befamiliar with the Finite Element Method, with 3D Modeling or with FiniteElement Modeling. Depending on the volumes you choose to read, however,you do need to be familiar with one or more of the relevant engineeringsubjects:
Design of Machine Elements
,
Strength of Materials
,
Kinematics of Machinery
,
Dynamics of Machinery
,
Probability and Statistics
,
Manufacturing Technology
and
Introduction to Programming
. A course on
Operations Research
or
Linear Programming
is useful but not essential.
This volume introduces you to Finite Element Analysis, a numerical methodthat is the cornerstone of most Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) programsin the industry.Design is addressed in the other volumes of this series. This book focuseswholly on Analysis. However the presentation is from a design perspective:FEA is presented with a minimum of mathematics, and with a strong focuson applications. You may choose to treat some chapters as references, depending on yourlevel of familiarity with the underlying theory. If you find any chapter hard tofollow, you should read it once for an overview, and refer to it again whendoing the assignments if necessary.The various references cited in the book will probably be most useful afteryou have worked through your project and are interpreting the results.
Supporting Material
Student Projects
and
Student Projects Summaries
that accompany these volumes – they should certainly be made

A Designer’s Guide To Finite Element Analysis Introduction
3
use of. Further reading and references are indicated both in this book and inthe Projects themselves.If you find the material interesting, you should also look up the HyperWorksOn-line Help System. The Altair website,
www.altair.com
, is also likely to beof interest to you, both for an insight into the evolving technology and tohelp you present your project better.
Do not be afraid to skip equations (I do this frequently myself).
Roger Penrose