On the other hand, acceptable mining environment have beendeveloped in old mining regions.Mining environment is understood as the entity includingresources (deposits and groundwater), land (agricultural andhousing land), engineering and technology.Long-term research of TUT Department of Mining and theco-operators have shown that ground and landscapes changedby mining can be of better quality afterwards than before. If reclaiming is planned skilfully, the soil, landforms, forest,water bodies and agricultural land can be more valuable thanbefore mining.  All this is the basis for developingacceptable, environmentally friendly mining. Creatingacceptable mining requires engineering research both innatural and technogenic environment, e.g. modelling and pilotprojects. Such research is voluminous, what is the reason thatin Estonia, as well as elsewhere, computer modelling hasbecome the principal tool in solving problems related to allsorts of developments, technologies and effects. , , The key issue is defining criteria and restrictions thatsatisfy all the involved parties.Creating models and estimation criteria requires mining-related expertise, and a database acquired frommeasurements, experimenting and laboratory testing.  Forthis purpose, the Department of Mining has the relevantlaboratories (see http://mi.ttu.ee/laboratory/). Modelling isfollowed by laboratory and industrial experiments, whichrequire profound know-how. In 2005-2011, the Departmentof Mining conducted industrial experiments in AS VäoPaas,AS Kiviõli chemical factory, AS PaekivitoodeteTehas, ASKunda Nordic Tsement and EestiEnergia Mining surface andunderground mines. The experiments included e.g.chronometry of technological productivity, geometric andgeological measurements, and measurements of rock quality. The related pilot experiments, ensuring road stability,were conducted in the autumn 2009 at the Kukruse overpassof the Tallinn-Narva main road. The parties that compose mining plans, development plansand estimations of environmental effects (TUT Department of Mining, mining engineering offices, geological institutions)have acquired planning and modelling software for variouspurposes, which causes some problems:1.
The geological database, the first parts of which dateback from over 50 years, requires skilful treatment: dataexist in several geodetic coordinate systems and includespartly obsolete stratigraphic terminology. Unfittingcoordinate systems disturb the usage of cross-use of spatial data in various state geoinformation databases(digital maps, border files, land registers, buildingregisters, databases of technological networks of enterprises, etc.). This creates further problems related tomined areas.2.
The main proportion of environmental restrictions, whichhave to be taken into account in mining and building, arespeculative and not based on real measurements. Usuallythe restrictions are two-dimensional and do not take intoaccount the structures of the geological environment.Such vagueness does not support precise engineeringcalculations or modelling.3.
Ground modelling systems that are designed indeveloped mining countries are principally meant fordeep deposits. However, in Estonia there are blanketdeposits, which cause wider environmental effect of mining. Because of that reason, imported systems have tobe adapted. Modelling and planning software adapted forEstonian blanket deposits can be recommended for use inother analogical mining conditions elsewhere, e.g. inUkraine or Jordan.Based on requirements by economy and the state, the maincriteria are diminishing both the loss of resources and theenvironmental effect of mining. The main targets in the oilshale deposit are new, planned mines: Uus-Kiviõli, Narva,Kuremäe (in the Puhatu region), Sonda (partly in the Lääne-Viru region). The principal building material deposit targetsare all deposits in northern Harjumaa and Raplamaa: Nabala,Harku, Maardu etc.The biggest section in mineral process in which saving andeffectiveness could be achieved is the mining sector. Itincludes social and environmental restrictions in deposits,losses in pillars and separation of products and waste rock. Losses are closely related to backfilling and waste rockusage. Much smaller sections include (in case of oil shaleusage) production of oil, electricity and chemicals in whichmost of the research and development is performed today.Efficiency of oil shale usage depends mainly on miningtechnology. Current urgent topics for investigating, testingand developing of oil shale mining related questions arebackfilling, mechanical extracting of shale, fine separation,selective separation and optimised drilling and blasting.Estonian oil shale mining industry with its 90 years of historyhas been a test polygon for equipment manufacturers,geologists and mining engineers from Germany, SovietUnion, Finland and Sweden.Estonia as active mining waste producer has been goodarea for collecting and analysing mining waste data.  Inreality there are no real tools, method or solutions for solvingmining waste handling requirements. Recent studies in oilshale and limestone production line have shown thatinvestigating waste balance and handling techniques requirescomplex study beginning from geological investigation, goingthrough opening mining fields, preparing process, overburdenremoval and auxiliary processes, extracting mineral resource,processing, separating, transporting and depositing. . Allthese processes have far more influence to the wastepercentage and properties than end user processes. Theminerals that are being studied are oil shale, limestone,dolostone, granite, dictyonema shale and phosphate rock.Since international projects are being involved, other mineralsfrom surrounding countries are being compared as well. Thestudy includes geological and mining technologicalmodelling, collecting waste samples, testing their propertiesand testing their modifications. The purpose is to findsolutions for decreasing waste amount and usage possibilitiesfor mining waste as construction materials, backfill materialfor supporting underground mines, underground constructionsand surface mining workings and overburden spoils. ,, ,