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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK
1.2 WHY KARST AQUIFERS REQUIRE SPECIFIC INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES
1.2.1 Evolution of the aquifer
1.2.2 Spatial heterogeneity
1.2.3 Hydraulic conductivity-scale effect
1.2.4 Duality of recharge and infiltration
1.2.5 Duality of porosity, flow and storage
1.2.6 Temporal variability
1.3 OVERVIEW OF METHODS USED TO STUDY KARST AQUIFERS
1.4 WHAT CAN GO WRONG – AN EXAMPLE FROM WALKERTON, CANADA
The geological and geomorphological framework
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 MINERALOGY, LITHOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY
2.2.1 Minerals that form karstifiable rocks
2.2.2 Karstifiable rocks
2.2.3 Influence of lithology upon karstifiability
2.2.4 From lithostratigraphy to hydrostratigraphy
2.3 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
2.3.1 Folds
2.3.2 Faults
2.3.3 Joints and bedding planes
2.3.4 Fracturing studies
2.4 GEOMORPHOLOGY
2.4.1 Classification of karst landforms and geomorphological mapping
2.4.2 Relations between karst landforms and hydrogeology
2.5 SUMMARY
Speleological investigations
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 USE OF CAVE SURVEY DATA FOR HYDROGEOLOGY
3.2.1 Cave mapping
3.2.2 Cave modelling in 3-D
3.2.3 Precise cave positioning and well placements
3.2.4 Interpretation of cave surveys
3.2.7 Availability of cave data for hydrogeologists
3.3 INVESTIGATION METHODS SPECIFIC TO THE CAVE ENVIRONMENT
3.3.1 Analysis of conduit morphology
3.3.2 Analysis of cave sediments
3.3.3 Water tracings within caves
3.4 MONITORING WATERS IN CAVES
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Characterisation of flow in the infiltration zone
3.4.3 Characterisation of transport in the infiltration zone
3.5 SUMMARY
Hydrological methods
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 GENERAL HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF KARST AQUIFER SYSTEMS
4.3 A BASIC CONCEPT: WATER BALANCES
4.4 SPRING HYDROGRAPHS
4.5 PRECIPITATION AND RECHARGE MONITORING
4.5.1 Introduction
4.5.2 Manual gages
4.5.3 Automatic-recording precipitation gages
4.5.4 Doppler radar
4.6 WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT
4.6.1 Introduction
4.6.2 Stage height measurement
4.6.3 Direct discharge measurement
4.6.4 Current meters
4.6.5 Weirs and flumes
4.6.6 Tracer dilution
4.6.7 Non-contact methods
4.6.8 Measurement of cave drips
4.7 ELECTRONIC DATA LOGGING
4.8 SUMMARY
Hydraulic methods
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 HYDRAULIC AND HYDROGEOLOGIC PARAMETERS
5.2.1 Porosity, effective porosity and storage capacity
5.2.2 Hydraulic head
5.2.3 Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity
5.2.4 Groundwater velocity
5.2.5 Groundwater flow
5.3 HYDRAULIC BOREHOLE TESTS
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Packer tests
5.3.3 Slug tests
5.4 AQUIFER PUMPING TESTS
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Data analysis
5.4.3 Aquifer anisotropy
5.4.4 Transmissivity of discrete aquifer zones
5.5 SUMMARY
Hydrochemical methods
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 PARAMETERS AND PROCESSES
6.2.1 Generalities
6.2.2 Precipitation-related parameters
6.2.3 Soil-related parameters
6.2.4 Carbonate-rock related parameters
6.2.5 Parameters related to other rock-types
6.2.6 Compounds of anthropogenic origin
6.3 SAMPLING STRATEGIES AND METHODS
6.3.1 Spatial versus temporal sampling
6.3.2 Sampling locations
6.3.3 Sampling frequency
6.3.4 Sampling methods
6.5.1 Introduction
6.5.3 Assessing residence time and origin of water
6.5.4 Identifying lateral inflows
6.5.5 Demonstrating and quantifying mixing
6.5.6 Global analysis using statistical methods
6.6 EVALUATION OF THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF CONTAMINANTS
6.6.1 Detecting contaminants at karst springs
6.6.2 Quantifying contaminant levels
6.6.3 Identifying contaminant sources
6.6.4 Investigating contaminant fate
6.7 SUMMARY
7.3.2 Temporal variations
7.3.3 Meteoric water line
7.4 SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OF KARST WATER
7.4.1 Meteoric percentage of karst waters
7.4.2 Isotopic mixing and solute correlations
7.4.3 Stable isotope tracing of karst springs
7.4.4 Contribution of karst waters to surface streams
7.5 OXYGEN ISOTOPE RESIDENCE TIME OF KARST AQUIFERS
7.5.1 Temporal isotopic variations in springs
7.5.3 Linear reservoir model
7.5.4 Hydrologic pulse model
7.6 RADIOISOTOPE DETERMINATION OF WATER AGE
7.6.1 Tritium
7.6.2 Tritium-helium-3 and krypton-85
7.6.3 Radiocarbon techniques
7.6.4 Radon gas techniques
7.7 SUMMARY
Tracer techniques
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL TRACERS
8.2.1 Overview
8.2.2 Fluorescent dyes
8.2.3 Salts
8.2.4 Particulate tracers
8.3 PREPARATION AND OPERATION OF TRACER TESTS
8.3.1 Preliminary investigations and legal aspects
8.3.4 Selection of the sampling sites and sampling techniques
8.3.5 Laboratory analyses
8.3.6 Instruments for field measurement
8.4 EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION
8.4.1 Data requirements, data quality and error analysis
8.4.2 Tracer background
8.4.3 Tracer transport in groundwater
8.4.4 Breakthrough curves
8.4.5 Travel time and transport velocity
8.4.6 Mass recovery
8.4.7 Characterisation of conduit networks
8.5 SUMMARY
Geophysical methods
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN GEOPHYSICS
9.2.1 Why use geophysics?
9.2.2 Prerequisites for subsurface detection
9.2.3 The noise problem
9.2.4 Resolution versus depth of investigation
9.2.5 Technique selection
9.2.6 Location control
9.2.7 Non-uniqueness
9.3 SEISMIC METHODS
9.3.1 Background
9.3.2 Seismic refraction
9.3.3 Seismic reflection
9.3.4 Surface wave analysis
9.4 GRAVITY METHODS
9.5 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS
9.5.1 Background
9.5.2 DC electrical methods
9.5.3 AC electromagnetic methods
9.5.4 Spontaneous potential
9.5.5 Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
9.5.6 Magnetic methods
9.6 BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICAL LOGGING
9.7 SUMMARY
Modelling karst hydrodynamics
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF KARST SYSTEMS
10.3 MODELLING APPROACHES
10.4 GLOBAL MODELS
10.4.1 Introduction
10.4.2 Single event models (grey box models)
10.4.3 Time series analysis
10.5 DISTRIBUTIVE MODELS
10.5.1 Introduction
10.5.2 Discrete Fracture Network Approach (DFN)
10.5.3 Discrete Conduit Network Approach (DCN)
10.5.4 Equivalent Porous Medium Approach (EPM)
10.5.5 Double Continuum Approach (DC)
10.7 SUMMARY
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Methods in Karst Hydro Geology

Methods in Karst Hydro Geology

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Published by: gaddargaddar on Feb 22, 2012
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