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COMMON PROBLEMS AND ACTIONS TAKEN IN THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM

COMMON PROBLEMS AND ACTIONS TAKEN IN THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM

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Published by: Doods Galdo on Feb 22, 2012
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06/04/2013

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COMMON PROBLEMS AND ACTIONS TAKEN IN THEPHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM
 Anecito Zito Gorduiz Galdo, MA
The current major issues in education policy worldwide are premisedon the interrelated aspects of a new philosophy of education that has evolved1990 Jomtien Document of United Nations Education, Scientific, CulturalOrganization (UNESCO); (2) Development of the Full Potential of HumanBeings, , enunciated by the UNESCO International Commission on Educationfor the 21
st
Century and articulated in its 1996 Report as the four pillars of education: Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Be, and Learningto Work Together; and (3) Lifelong Learning for All, enunciated in the 1997Hamburg Declaration of the 5
th
International Conference on Adult Education.Together, they spell out a philosophy of education for the 21
st
century, asarticulated by UNESCO.The 1990 EFA document called for ³education for all to meet the basiclearning needs of all our people by expanding learning opportunities forchildren, youth and adults, making primary education universal and workingfor a fully literate society.´ Translated into policy directions, EFA focused onearly childhood development, universalization of quality primary education,and adult literacy and continuing education.In 1997, the emerging philosophy was expanded still further by theHamburg Declaration, with its emphasis on continuing adult learningsummarized comprehensively under 10 thematic headings: (1) democraticparticipation, (2) improving the condition and quality of adult learning, (3)ensuring universal right to literacy and basic education, (4) gender equality,equity and the empowerment of women, (5) adult learning and the hangingworld of work, (6) learning in relation to the environment, health andpopulation, (7) culture, media and new information technologies, (8) therights and aspirations of different groups (e.g. migrants, displacedpopulation, the aged and disabled, etc), (9) the economics of adult learning,and (10) enhancing international cooperation and solidarity.All the aforementioned initiatives were the bases in the actions takenby the government in response to the pressing problems of the Philippineeducation system as reflected in the following table:
 
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Common Problems Actions Taken
Access to BasicEducationEducation for All (EFA)Establishment of SchoolsSocial Reform Agenda (SRA)Non-formal Education (NFE)Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT)Quality of BasicEducationThird Elementary Education Project (TEEP)Secondary Education Development Project (SEDP)Lengthening of School DaysEstablishment of Regional Science High Schools andNew Science CurriculumNational Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) andNational Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT)Ten-Year Master Plan for Basic Education (1996-2005)Pre-school ProgramDropout Intervention ProgramLow budget, HighEnrollmentIncreased Budget for EducationShortage of Teachers Creating item position for teachersMultigrade Schooling ProgramShortage of Textbooks RA 8047 (Book Publishing Industry Development)Classroom Shortageand moreTwo-to-Three Shifts of ClassesUnderinvestment inEducationDecentralization of Educational ManagementAs disclosed by the previous investigations on the state of education inthe Philippines, problems like access to basic education, quality of basiceducation, low budget with high enrollment, shortage of teachers, shortageof textbooks, of classrooms and more, and underinvestment in educationcontinuously beset the system. There were various efforts and programsthat the government undertook in order to somehow address thoseproblems. However, the same problems occur and relate with anotherproblem. The surging poverty amongst people adds up to the existing andcontinuing handicap to development that we encounter. This contributes tothe problem on access to education.Access to education and its corollary mechanisms of selection areprocesses of distribution of educational provision and opportunities. They areusually analyzed in conjunction with the structure of educational provision asdefined by the structure of education system. Access is understood from thepoint of view of individuals wanting to enter the education system (whowants to be educated and where). Selection is understood from the point of 

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