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Classical and Quantum Propagation of Chaos

Classical and Quantum Propagation of Chaos

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Chapter 1
Classical and QuantumPropagation of Chaos
1.1 Overview
The concept of molecular chaos dates back to Boltzmann [3], who derived thefundamental equation of the kinetic theory of gases under the hypothesis thatthe molecules of a nonequilibrium gas are in a state of “molecular disorder.”The concept of 
propagation 
of molecular chaos is due to Kac [8,9], who called it “propagation of the Boltzmann property” and used it to derive the homo-geneous Boltzmann equation in the infinite-particle limit of certain Markoviangas models (see also [5,17]). McKean [12,13] proved the propagation of chaos for systems of interacting diffusions that yield diffusive Vlasov equations in themean-field limit. Spohn [16] used a quantum analog of the propagation of chaosto derive time-dependent Hartree equations for mean-field Hamiltonians, andhis work was extended in [1] to open quantum mean-field systems.This article examines the relationship between classical and quantum prop-agation of chaos. The rest of this introduction reviews some ideas of quantumprobability and dynamics. Section1.2discusses the classical and quantum con-cepts of propagation of chaos. In Section1.3,
classical 
propagation of chaosis shown to occur when
quantum 
systems that propagate quantum molecularchaos are suitably prepared, allowed to evolve without interference, and thenobserved. Our main result is Corollary1.3.7, which may be paraphrased asfollows:Let
O
be a complete observable of a single particle, taking its values ina countable set
, and let
O
i
denote the observable
O
of particle
i
in a sys-tem of 
n
distinguishable particles of the same species. Suppose we allow thatquantum
n
-particle system to evolve freely, except that we periodically measure
O
1
,
O
2
,... ,
O
n
. The resulting time series of measurements is a Markov chain in
n
.
If the sequence of 
n
-particle dynamics propagates quantum molecular chaos,then these derived Markov chains propagate chaos in the classical sense
.1
 
2
Alex Gottlieb
Results like this may be of interest to probabilists who already know someexamples of the propagation of chaos and who may be surprised to learn of novel examples arising in quantum dynamics. An effort has been made hereto expound the propagation of quantum molecular chaos for such an audience,while the classical propagation of chaos
per se
is discussed only briefly in Sec-tion1.2.1. The reader is referred to [18] and [14] for two definitive surveys of  the classical propagation of chaos.
1.1.1 Quantum kinematics
In quantum theory, the state of a physical system is inherently statistical: thestate of a system
does not
determine
whether or not
has a given property,but rather, the state provides only the
probability 
that
would be found tohave that property, if we were to check for it. The properties that
mightor might not have are represented by orthogonal projectors on some Hilbertspace. If a projector
represents a property P of 
, then the complementaryproperty NOT P is represented by
. The identity and zero operators
and
0
represent the trivial properties TRUE and FALSE respectively. If P andQ are properties whose orthogonal projectors are
and
Q
, the properties (PAND Q) and (P OR Q) are defined if and only if 
and
Q
commute, in whichcase
PQ
=
QP 
represents (P AND Q) and
+
Q
PQ
represents (P OR Q).A countable
resolution of the identity 
is a countable family of projectors
{
j
}
such that
j
j
=
j
j
=
0
;
 j
=
j
and
=
j
j
. This represents a partition of the space of outcomes of a mea-surement on
into a countable set of elemental properties, which are mutuallyexclusive and collectively exhaustive. A
state
ω
of the system
is a functionthat assigns probabilities to the properties of 
, or their projections. Thus wesuppose that
ω
(
) = 1
, ω
(
0
) = 0 and also that
ω
(
) +
ω
(
) =
ω
(
) = 1
.
Indeed, it is rational to suppose that any state
ω
must satisfy1 =
ω
(
) =
ω
j
j
=
j
ω
(
j
) (1.1)for any countable resolution of the identity
{
j
}
.Having made these introductory comments, we revert to a more technicaldescription of the mathematical set-up. Suppose the properties of a quantumsystem
are represented by orthogonal projectors in
B
(
H
), the bounded oper-ators on a Hilbert space
H
. The
statistical states
(also called simply
states
) of that quantum system are identified with the normal positive linear functionalson
B
(
H
) that assign 1 to the identity operator. A positive linear functional
ω
on
B
(
H
) is
normal 
if 
a
A
ω
(
a
) = 1
 
Propagation of Chaos in Classical and Quantum Kinetics 
3whenever
{
a
}
a
A
is a family of commuting projectors that sum to the identityoperator (i.e., the net of finite partial sums of the projectors converges in theweak operator topology to the identity). Normal states are in one-one corre-spondence with
density operators
, positive trace-class operators of trace 1. If 
D
is a density operator on
H
then
A
Tr(
DA
) defines a normal state on
B
(
H
);conversely, every normal state
ω
on
B
(
H
) is of the form
ω
(
A
) = Tr(
DA
) forsome density operator
D
. The density operators form a closed convex subsetof the trace-class operators, which is a Banach space with
= Tr(
|
|
). Thedual of the Banach space of trace class operators is
B
(
H
) with its operator norm.In the Heisenberg picture of quantum dynamics — where the state is con-stant while the operators corresponding to observables change — the dynamicsare given by unitarily implemented automorphisms of the bounded operatorson a Hilbert space. That is, for each
τ 
0 there exists a unitary operator
(
τ 
)such that a property represented by
at time
t
= 0 is represented by
(
τ 
) =
(
τ 
)
P
(
τ 
) (1.2)at time
t
=
τ 
. In the Schr¨odinger picture of dynamics, the density operator
D
of the quantum state changes in time while the projectors
that represent prop-erties of the system remain fixed. The Schr¨odinger formulation of the dynamicscorresponding to (1.2) is
D
(
τ 
) =
(
τ 
)
D
(0)
(
τ 
)
,
because, for any
∈ B
(
H
),Tr[
DP 
(
τ 
)] = Tr[
D
(
τ 
)
P
(
τ 
)] = Tr[
(
τ 
)
DU 
(
τ 
)
] = Tr[
D
(
τ 
)
]
.
The Heisenberg picture of dynamics suggests a generalization where the dynam-ics
A
AU 
are replaced by more general endomorphisms of 
B
(
H
), namely,by completely positive maps
φ
:
B
(
H
)
B
(
H
) such that
φ
(
) =
. Theseendomorphisms include the automorphisms
A
AU 
of the Heisenberg pic-ture of quantum dynamics, but also describe maps of observables
A
φ
(
A
)effected by the intervention of measurements, randomization, and coupling toother systems. A map
φ
is positive if it maps nonnegative operators to non-negative operators, and it is
completely positive
if 
φ
id
d
is positive wheneverid
d
is the identity on
B
(
C
d
) for any finite
d
. Requiring
φ
to be positive andunital (unit preserving) is necessary to ensure that (1.1) holds, at least for anyfinite resolution of the identity. The
complete
positivity of 
φ
ensures the posi-tivity of the dynamics of certain extensions of the original system
, where
isconsidered together with a physically independent, finite-dimensional quantumsystem. To pass to the Schr¨odinger picture we must impose the further technicalrequirement that the map
φ
be
normal 
, i.e.,
φ
is assumed to be such thatlim
φ
(
A
α
) =
φ
(
A
)whenever
{
A
α
}
is a monotone increasing net of positive operators with leastupper bound
A
. This way the Schodinger dynamics of the normal state can

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