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Temporo Mandibular Joint

Temporo Mandibular Joint

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Published by: Marrion Jules Sequitin Mendoza on Feb 22, 2012
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02/22/2012

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TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
(TMJ)
 The name is derived from the two boneswhich form the joint: the upper temporal bone whichis part of the
cranium
(skull), and the lower jawbone called the
mandible
.
It is an example of 
diarthrosis
and itsmovements are combination of gliding movementsand a loose hinge movements.
It allows a wide range of motion to themandible
Composed of 
bones, ligaments,cartilages
 
and
synovial membrane.
COMPONENTS OF TMJ
1.
Osseous
- the articulating bony parts
Mandibular Fossa of the Temporal Bone/ Glenoid Fossa
An oval depression in the temporal bone just anterior to the auditorycanal.
Condyloid Process/ CondylarProcess/ Mandibular Condyle
A knob-like bone (wider latero-medially than antero-posteriorly), itis convex on all bearing surfacesalthough somewhat flattened
posteriorly.
Articulating Tubercle/ Articular eminence
Bony elevation located anterior and posterior to the glenoid fossa ormandibular fossa.
2.
Ligaments
- tough tissues that connects various structures such as twobones.
Capsular Ligament
-A synovial capsule which completely surround the condyle.-Divided into 4 portions:a.Anterior Portionb.Posterior Portionc.Internal Portiond.External Portion/ Temporomandibular Ligament
Temporomandibular Ligament 
-Largest portion
 
-Acts as main suspensory ligament of the mandible during themoderate opening movement (hinge).-It has a broad attachment above the zygomatic process of thetemporal bone, the anterior fibers attaching forward beyond thearticular eminence and is inserted into the outer side andposterior margin of the neck of the condyle.
Sphenomandibular Ligament
Round and cordlike at its origin and takes more of a ribbon like form atits insertion.
With wider opening of the jaw, the condyle move forward rapidly,relaxing the external lateral ligament as the sphenomandibularligament become tensed or slightly stretched.
Originates from the spinous process of the sphenoid bone and insertsinto the lingual of the mandible with some fibers attached below themandibular foramen.
Stylomandibular Ligament
Extends from the styloid process of thetemporal bone and inserts into the posteriorborder of the ramus of the mandible. Just before the stylomandibular ligamentmakes its insertion, it gives off an accessoryfiber which continues downward to theposterior border of the hyoid bone, called thestylohyoid ligament.
 The temporomandibluar ligament and the sphenomandibular ligament actsas suspensory ligaments.
 The stylomandibular ligament and its accessory stylohyoid ligament acts ascheckrein on the mandible and helps prevent excessive anterior drift at theangle during more extreme opening movements.
3.
 
Meniscus
- is a fibrous, saddle shaped structure that separates the condyleand the temporal bone. It is thecartilage that controls that acts ascushion between the ends of bonesthat meet in a joint.It promotessmooth articulation. It is surroundedby synovial membrane whichlubricates the cartilage
Cavities:
 
a) Menisco-Temporal Cavity 
- larger cavity- allows gliding of the condylar head to the articular eminence.
b) Menisco-Condylar Cavity 
- smaller cavity- allows hinge movement of the condylar head.
4. Synovial Membrane-
lines the internal surface of the meniscus.
 The synovial membrane allows diffusion of a plasma filtrate and componentsof its own to produce synovial fluid that fills both joint compartments. Itsshape is altered during functional movement.
Synovial Fluid 
 
lubricates the articulating parts. The synovial tissue can be divided into three layers:1.The synovial lining, or intima, is the most intimate with the functional jointsurface.2.The subsynovial tissue, which is similar to the intima but with a moredeveloped connective tissue network.3.The capsule, which is a relatively acellular layer with thick bands of collegenthat forms the outer boundary of the joint.
5.
 
Muscles of Mastication
DEPRESSOR
-mouth is opened because mandibular is pulled down.
Lateral Pterygoid-
Superior head is active during various jaw closing movement
-
Inferior head is active during jaw upward movement.
-
The lateral pterygoid (or external pterygoid) is a muscle of mastication withtwo heads. It lies superiorly to the medial pterygoid.-The upper/superior head originates on the infratemporal surface andinfratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, and thelower/inferior head on the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate.Inferior head inserts onto the neck of condyle of the mandible;upper/superior head inserts onto the articular disc and fibrous capsule of the TMJ.

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