Yi Zhang and his colleagues note,
eldtests are needed or the ollowing reasons:
real coverage areas o cell phone tow-ers are quite dierent rom simulatedones, and vary rom urban to ruralareas;
validation o methods to determinea trip’s origin and destination shouldbe perormed using real individualmobility data;
real mobility and calling patternsshould be included in the analysisbecause they crucially infuence themethods’ perormance;
existing OD matrices should be usedas ground truth to veriy the correct-ness o the estimated results.Our methodology uses opportunis-tically collected mobile phone locationdata to estimate dynamic OD matrices.We address concerns using a real mo-bility and calling dataset rom 1 millionmobile phone users. We use the Bostonmetropolitan area as a case study andvalidate our methodology using censussurvey data or both county and census-tract levels.
To our knowledge, boththe methodology developed and thedata precision and amount are unique.
Mobil pho Ds
The considered dataset consists o anonymous location measurementsgenerated each time a device connectsto the cellular network, including:
when a call is placed or received (bothat the beginning and end o a call);
when a short message is sent orreceived;
when the user connects to the Inter-net (or example, to browse the Web,or through email programs that peri-odically check the mail server).In this article, we reer to these eventsas
. The eventsrepresent a superset o those in the calldetail records used elsewhere.
We analyzed 829 million mobilelocation data or 1 million devicescollected by AirSage (www.airsage.com). This data included not only theID o the cell tower the mobile phonewas connected to, but also an estima-tion o its position within the cell,which is generated through triangu-lation by AirSage’s Wireless SignalExtraction technology. Each loca-tion measurement
is charac-terized by a position
everal related studies on analyzing trac fow have beenpublished in recent years.Raaele Bolla and Franco Davoli presented a model or estimating trac using an algorithm that calculates trac para-meters on the basis o mobile phone location data.
Researchersin Rome developed a case study or real-time urban monitor-ing using aggregated mobile phone data to monitor trac andmovement o vehicles and pedestrians.
Randal Cayord andTigran Johnson analyzed the main parameters to be consid-ered, namely precision, metering requency, and the number o localizations necessary to achieve accurate trac descrip-tions.
Several companies worldwide, including ITIS Holdings(Britain), Delcan (Canada), CellInt (Israel), and AirSage andIntelliOne (USA), have begun developing commercial applica-tions o mobile phone-based trac monitoring. With the speciic goal o measuring OD lows, dierentmobile phone signaling datasets have been consideredand simulated to evaluate the easibility o estimating trips.Initial work used billing data, consisting o cell phonetower inormation every time a phone received or made acall.
Other research has used mobile phone positions everytwo hours to iner trips,
location updates to iner mobilephone movement,
and cell phone tower handover inorma-tion.
A recent eort estimated the daily OD demand usingsimulated cellular probe trajectory inormation (extracted rom location updates, handover, and transition o timingadvance values) and tested the methodology via the VisSimsimulation.
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rld Wok i alyzig tffi Flow