Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
deJong_Alpine Tectonics Betics & Pyrenees: Iberia's Rotation Pole Changes_Tectonophysics 1990

deJong_Alpine Tectonics Betics & Pyrenees: Iberia's Rotation Pole Changes_Tectonophysics 1990

Ratings: (0)|Views: 53|Likes:
Published by Koen de Jong
The geodynamics of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees, bordering the Iberian micro-plate along its southern and northern margins, respectively, reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. Constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate are provided by P-T-t data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the Betic Cordilleras.
Early thrusting and high-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Ma period is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole as thrusting in the Betics. During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. This inhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras. Deformation was instead transferred to the northern boundary of Iberia, now acting as an African promontory. During the Pyrenean collision that culminated in the late Eocene, high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Betic Cordilleras were exhumed and they cooled substantially. The cooling trend was disturbed by Oligocene extensional deformation that reheated the rocks due to mantle uplift. The extensional structure was inverted in early Miocene times by Africa-Europe convergence producing crustal shortening in the Betics.
The geodynamics of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees, bordering the Iberian micro-plate along its southern and northern margins, respectively, reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. Constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate are provided by P-T-t data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the Betic Cordilleras.
Early thrusting and high-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Ma period is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole as thrusting in the Betics. During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. This inhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras. Deformation was instead transferred to the northern boundary of Iberia, now acting as an African promontory. During the Pyrenean collision that culminated in the late Eocene, high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Betic Cordilleras were exhumed and they cooled substantially. The cooling trend was disturbed by Oligocene extensional deformation that reheated the rocks due to mantle uplift. The extensional structure was inverted in early Miocene times by Africa-Europe convergence producing crustal shortening in the Betics.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Koen de Jong on Feb 23, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/08/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Tectonophysics, 184 (1990) 219-296
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam279
Alpine tectonics and rotation pole evolution of Iberia
Koen de Jong
Instrtute for Earth Sciences, Free Unruersity, P.O. Box 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
(Received April 20,1989; revised version accepted January 26. 1990)ABSTRACTDe Jong, K., 1990. Alpine tectonics and rotation pole evolution of Iberia. In: G. Boillot and J.M. Fontbote (Editors), AlpineEvolution of Iberia and its Continental Margins.
Tectonophysics, 184: 279-296.
The geological evolution of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole andkinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. New constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plateare provided by
P-T-t
data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the BeticCordilleras.High-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betic Cordilleras resulted from continent-continent collision whichcaused subduction to a maximum depth of 37 km. A preliminary 116 + 10 Ma radiometric age for this event corresponds tothe initiation of seafloor spreading to the west of Iberia which lasted until about 80 Ma. Intracontinental thrusting in theBetics between 99 Ma and 83 Ma took place after subduction ended. E-W to ESE-WNW trending stretching lineationsindicate the direction of thrusting, which resulted in extensional strains of 200-600%. The timing of thrusting in the Beticscoincides with a 95-80 Ma tectonic phase in northern Africa, during which E-W stretching lineations were formed. Thestretching Iineations are coincident with the 110-80 Ma motion vector of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia. Thrusting inthe Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Cretaceousdeformation is further recorded by terrigeneous sedimentation in the Mauritanian Flysch and by the tectosedimentaryevolution of the Malaguide Complex. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Maperiod is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole asthrusting in the Betics.During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. Thisinhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras.Deformation was instead transferred to the northern boundary of Iberia, now acting as an African promontory. From theCampanian on wards, oblique convergence took place around the combined Gibraltar rotation pole. Deformation culminatedin the late Eocene, corresponding to spreading in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at 55 Ma which induced an additionalcompression in western Eurasia. During the Pyrenean collision, high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Betic Cordilleras wereexhumed and they cooled substantially. The cooling trend was disturbed by Oligocene extensional deformation andintroduction of a transient heat source, which correlates with the mantle being uplifted during extension. Heating culminatedat the Oligocene-Miocene boundary in the Betic Cordilleras and in northern Africa. This evolution agrees with thedevelopment of a plate boundary between Iberia and Africa at 30 Ma, after completion of the Pyrenean collision. The newplate boundary was connected to the western European rift system.Renewal of compression and overthrusting in the Betic Zone took place after 20 Ma. Overthrusting is succeeded by twophases of wrenching, juxtaposing crustal segments with different Moho depths inherited from the late Oligocene to EarlyMiocene extension.
Introduction
The Iberian peninsula (Fig. 1) is bordered bytwo Alpine foldbelts, the Pyrenees to the northand the Betic Cordilleras to the south. These beltsseparate the Iberian plate from, respectively, theEurasian plate and the African plate. The Creta-ceous to Tertiary tectonic evolution of the Pyreneeshas been well documented (Mattauer and Henry,1974; Puigdefabregas and Souquet, 1986; Soula etal., 1986). Until now the Betic Cordilleras hasmost often been regarded as a Tertiary orogen,mainly on the basis of important Tertiary defor-mation in the non-metamorphic parts (Rondeeland Simon, 1974; De Smet, 1984). A Mesozoic agefor the early deformation has, however, been sug-
0040-1951/90/$03.500 1990 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
 
280
gested by Kampschuur and Rondeel(l975) owingto the Mesozoic age of the flysch deposits in thewestern Betics. New data discussed in this paperalso suggest important Cretaceous tectonics in themetamorphic Internal Zone of the BeticCordilleras. Ceochronological studies in the Al-pine collision belt of northern Africa (Monie etal., 1984a; 1988) show a tectonic evolution whichis comparable to that of the Betics-Cretaceousmetamo~~c ages and an important Tertiary re-setting. This paper aims at tying the new tectonicmodel for the Betic Zone and the thermotectonicevolution of the northern African belt to the well-constrained tectonic evolution of the Pyrenees.The tectonic evolution of the erogenic beltsbordering the Iberian plate will be shown to beconsistent with the Cretaceous and Tertiary rota-tion pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberianand African plates discussed by Savostin et al.
K. DE
JONG
(1986) Srivastava and Tapscott (1986) and Klit-gord and Schouten (1986).Regionally consistent stretching lineationswhich were formed during early Alpine thrustingat lower crustal levels are a salient feature of thetectonic evolution of the Internal Zone. Theycoincide with the mid-Cretaceous motion vector ofSavostin et al. (1986) of the African plate (includ-ing Iberia at that time) with respect to Eurasia.Because stretching lineations appro~mate themovement direction in shear zones (Esscher andWatterson, 1974) they probably also trace platemotion directions. A relationship between the di-rection of thrusting and plate motion has beensuggested for an number of orogens (Shackletonand Ries, 1984), including the Alps (Baird andDewey, 1986; Choukroune et al., 1986). Duringthe later stages of the tectonic evolution of thearcuate western Alps, radial thrusting occurred
IBERIAN MESETA
GULF DE LION
Infernal Zones of the Betlc Cordilleras and Rlf;:DIAbne metamorphic rocks)a
Fig. 1. Sketch map of the westernmost Mediterranean area (modified after Ricou et al., 1986) showing the major Alpine structuralprovinces. The eastern Betic Cordilleras of southern Spain are delineated.
 
ALPINE TECTONICS AND ROTATION POLE EVOLUTION OF IBERIA
281
(Choukroune et al., 1986) at higher crustal levels,this thrusting clearly bearing no relationship toplate motion vectors. Relatively large finite dis-placements and rotations during such a stage willdisturb the original pattern of older stretchinglineations formed at deeper levels. The easternpart of the Betic Cordilleras does not demonstratean arcuate form, and therefore no pervasive re-orientation of older structures is to be expected.Palaeostress analyses in stable forelands do notusually suffer the disadvantage of reorientation, asfinite strain is in general small. A clear relation-ship between (successive) palaeostress directionsand plate motion vectors is therefore recorded inthe Alpine foreland (Letouzey, 1986; Bergerat,1987). However, in Iberia the Mesozoic palaeos-tress directions do not mimic the plate vector veryaccurately (Malod, 1989). This is partly the resultof reorientation and heterogeneities induced bypre-existing faults. Therefore, the regionally con-sistent stretching lineations in the Internal Zoneare considered as an important constraint in theearly kinematic evolution of the Iberian plate.Motions around different rotation pole positionsduring orogeny will, due to overprinting and re-orientation, not be recorded by successive genera-tions of stretching lineations. Shifting of rotationpoles has, however, a marked effect on tectonics inmetamorphic belts, as will be discussed later.
Evolution of the tectonic zones bordering Iberia
The Alpine collision belts bordering Iberia arecharacterized by Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ex-tensional deformation and related strike-slip de-formation. A Middle to Late Jurassic strike-slipfault between Iberia-Africa is indicated by platereconstructions (Savostin et al., 1986; Klitgordand Schouten, 1986). The occurrence of a frag-ment of an ophiolite sequence of Late Jurassic agein northern Africa (Bouillin et al., 1977) accordswith these reconstructions. Continuing motion intothe Cretaceous is indicated by flysch depositsculminating in Aptian-Albian times in the FlyschDomain (Bouillin et al., 1986). The non-metamor-phic External Zones of Iberia and northern Africaare palaeogeographically unrelated (Bouillin et al.,1986) this also indicating their initial separation.In the External Zone of the Betic Cordilleras analgal platform broke up at the Middle to LateJurassic boundary (Geel, 1979) resulting in strongpalaeogeographical differentiation (Hermes, 1978).An extensional tectonic regime is indicated bypillow basalt intrusions in the Sub-Betic (Hermes,1978; De Smet, 1984). Important hiatuses, turbi-dite deposits and the occurrence of Middle Jurassiclithoclasts in Albian-Aptian marls (Hermes, 1978)indicate important vertical motions continuing intothe Cretaceous. Basaltic intrusion in the InternalZone of the Betics is of Jurassic age (146 + 3 Ma,Rb/Sr age, Hebeda et al., 1980; 200 f 5 Ma,K/Ar biotite age, Besems and Simon, 1982).At the northern boundary of Iberia, in thefuture Pyrenees, carbonate platform breakup oc-curred in the Early to Middle Jurassic(Puigdefabregas and Souquet, 1986). At the north-western margin of Iberia, Late Jurassic riftingpossibly occurred; important rifting started in theBerriasian to earliest Valanginian (144-140 Ma,Boillot et al., 1989). The end of emplacement ofultramafic rocks by ductile normal faulting hasbeen dated at 122 f 0.6 Ma (Feraud et al., 1988).Final emplacement by brittle deformation oc-curred before the late Aptian breakup unconfor-mity (around 115 Ma), which marks the onset ofseafloor spreading (Boillot and Malod, 1988; Boil-lot et al., 1989; Malod, 1989). Opening of the Bayof Biscay occurred between the Aptian andCampanian and induced several hundred kilo-metres of strike-slip on the North Pyrenean Fault(Le Pichon et al., 1971; Choukroune and Mat-tauer, 1978; Savostin et al., 1986; Srivastava andTapscott, 1986; Klitgord and Schouten, 1986;Boillot and Malod, 1988; Malod, 1989). Deforma-tion coincided with a general change in the sedi-mentation pattern in Aptian times (Souquet et al.,1985) and Pyrenean magmatism and metamor-phism between 110 and 85 Ma (Albarede andMichard-Vitrac, 1978; Montigny et al., 1986).During this period the North Pyrenean Fault zonewas characterized by high heat flow in response tocrustal thinning related to strike-slip tectonics(Choukroune and Mattauer, 1978; Vielzeuf andKornprobst, 1984; Golberg et al., 1986). EarlyCretaceous metamorphic ages are also well re-corded by the 4oAr-39Ar stepwise heating method

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->