Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Mechanical Waves

Mechanical Waves

Ratings: (0)|Views: 57 |Likes:
Published by Merima

More info:

Published by: Merima on Feb 23, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/02/2012

pdf

text

original

 
MECHANICALWAVES
Types of wave
Waves
are moving energy.
 
Wh
en wavesmove along, t
h
ey make t
h
e surface or objectmove in regular patterns often called
 
w
avedisturbances
.
T
h
e important t
h
ing to notice ist
h
at no 'matter' is moved wit
h
t
h
e wave.
 
Onlyt
h
e energy travels along.
Wh
en it comes tomec
h
anical waves, molecules oscillate; andw
h
en it comes to electromagnetic waves ² electric and magnetic fields oscillate.
M
echanical
w
aves
are produced by adisturbance in a material medium and aretransmitted by t
h
e particles of t
h
e mediumvibrating to and fro. Suc
h
waves can be seenor felt.A
progressive
or 
travelling
w
ave
is adisturbance w
h
ic
h
carries energy from oneplace to anot
h
er wit
h
out transferring matter.T
h
ere are two types:
transverse
and
longitudinal
.In a
transverse
w
ave
, t
h
e direction of t
h
edisturbance is at rig
h
t angles to t
h
e directionof t
h
e travel of t
h
e wave. T
h
is leads to a seriesof
peaks
and
troughs
. At peaks, t
h
e particlesare displaced
h
ig
h
er t
h
an normal. At troug
h
s,t
h
ey are displaced lower t
h
an normal.
Examples
include lig
h
t waves, water wavesand all electromagnetic waves.In
longitudinal
w
aves
t
h
e particles vibrate int
h
e same direction as t
h
e movement ofenergy. T
h
is leads to a series of
compressions
 and
rarefactions
. In compressions, t
h
eparticles are closer toget
h
er t
h
an normal. Inrarefactions, t
h
e particles are furt
h
er apartt
h
an normal.
Examples
are sound waves and seismic
 
waves.
D
escribing waves
D
isplacement-distance
grap
h
s
h
ows, for acertain instant of time, t
h
e distance movedby t
h
e parts of a medium vibrating atdifferent distance from t
h
e cause of t
h
ewave.
Wavelength
T
h
e wavelengt
h
of a wave, represented by aGreek letter lambda (), is t
h
e distancebetween successive crests.
 Amplitude
T
h
e amplitude is t
h
e
h
eig
h
t of a crest or t
h
edept
h
of a troug
h
measured from t
h
eundisturbed position of w
h
atever is carryingt
h
e wave.
Frequency
T
h
e frequency is t
h
e number of completewaves generated per second. T
h
e
hertz
is t
h
eunit of frequency. T
h
e frequency of a wave isalso t
h
e number of crests passing a c
h
osenpoint per second.
ime period
T
h
e time period of a wave is t
h
e time it takesfor one complete wave. T
h
e lower t
h
efrequency is t
h
e longer t
h
e time period willbe.
 
P
hase
P
h
ase is relative displacement between or among waves
h
aving t
h
e same frequency.
 Speed
T
h
e speed of t
h
e wave is t
h
e distance movedin t
h
e direction of travel of t
h
e wave by acrest or any point on t
h
e wave in 1 second.
The wave equation
T
h
e
h
ig
h
er t
h
e frequency of t
h
e wave, t
h
esmaller its wavelengt
h
.
   
 
R
eflection
Wh
en lig
h
t
h
its a mirror it bounces off t
h
emirror. T
h
is is called
reflection
. T
h
e lig
h
t goingtowards t
h
e mirror is t
h
e
incident ray
. T
h
eangle between t
h
e normal and t
h
e incidentray is called t
h
e
angle of incidence
. T
h
e lig
h
tcoming away from t
h
e mirror is t
h
e
reflectedray
. T
h
e angle between t
h
e normal and t
h
ereflected ray is called t
h
e
angle of reflection
.T
h
e lig
h
t
h
itting t
h
e roug
h
surface is scatteredand only some lig
h
t will enter an eye. T
h
is iscalled
diffuse reflection
. On a smoot
h
er surface lig
h
t will be reflected in a regular way. T
h
is is called
regular reflection
.
hree rules of reflection
RULE
1
: T
h
e angle of incidence is always t
h
esame size as t
h
e angle of reflection. (
A
ngle
A
 =
A
ngle B
)T
h
e angles are always measured from t
h
e rayto t
h
e
 
normal line.
 
T
h
e
normal line
is a line atrig
h
t angles to t
h
e mirror.
P
lane (flat) mirrors produce
virtual images
.T
h
is means t
h
at t
h
e images are not real, t
h
eydon't exist.
W
e can see t
h
ese imagesbecause our brains t
h
ink t
h
at t
h
ey exist.T
h
e rays of lig
h
t reflect off t
h
e mirror (obeyingrule 1), back into t
h
e eye. T
h
e brain t
h
inkst
h
at lig
h
t only travels in straig
h
t lines, so trackst
h
e lines back to t
h
e point be
h
ind t
h
e mirror.T
h
is point is t
h
e virtual image. It doesn't reallyexist, but t
h
e brain t
h
inks it does.
RULE
2
: T
h
e image is always t
h
e samedistance be
h
ind t
h
e mirror as t
h
e object is infront (
distance C = distance
D
).
R
ule 3
: T
h
e image is always t
h
e same size ast
h
e object and laterally inverted (leftbecomes rig
h
t and rig
h
t becomes left).

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->