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filamentary memresistor

filamentary memresistor

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Published by Blaise_Mouttet
Physics model for some forms of ReRAM
Physics model for some forms of ReRAM

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Published by: Blaise_Mouttet on Feb 23, 2012
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June 25, 2011 (ver.3)
Dynamic Systems Model for FilamentaryMem-Resistors
Blaise Mouttet
 Abstract 
 — 
A dynamic systems model is proposeddescribing memory resistors which include a filamentconductive bridge. In this model the system state isdefined by both a dynamic tunneling barrier(associated with the filament-electrode gap) and adynamic Schottky barrier (associated with theelectron depletion width surrounding the filament-electrode gap). A general model is formulated whichmay be applicable to many different forms of memory resistor materials. The frequency responseof the model is briefly discussed.
 Keywords- mem-resistor, non-linear dynamic systems, RRAM, ReRAM, Schottky junction, tunneling junction
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 A dynamic systems model was recently proposedfor ionic mem-resistors based on harmonicoscillation of either electronic or ionic depletionwidths in metal-semiconductor junctions [1]. Thismodel was made under the assumption that thedepletion width was uniform across the area of the junction. However, this assumption is not justifiedfor certain metal oxides [2] and ion-dopedchalcogenides [3] which include localizedconducting filaments.
In the 1990’s and 2000’s
research and development performed by scientists of Axon Technology and Micron Technology havedemonstrated the existence of such conductingfilaments as important to solid electrolyte memorycells [4]. The filaments may be formed in variousmemory resistor materials by different mechanismssuch as accumulation of ions or vacancies in non-uniform electric fields or via electrochemicalreactions at an active electrode [5].The present article expands the harmonic mem-resistor model of [1] to incorporate the effects of afilament in an ionic junction.II.
 
FILAMENT DYNAMICS IN THIN FILMS
 Following the approach of [1] this modelexpresses the dynamic equation in terms of 
 Newton’s 2
nd
law of motion relating the acceleration
2
 x
 f 
 /dt 
2
of the tip of a filament having effective mass
m
 f 
to the sum of the forces
i
acting on it.
 
 
2
 
2
=

When an external electric field is applied to afilament in a thin film sandwiched between twoelectrodes there are three principle forces which acton the filament tip. The first force (
c
) is due tocollisions of the tip with the surrounding media asthe tip-electrode gap varies. The product of thisforce and the average time between collisions
 
c
canbe equated to the change in the tip momentum.
 
=
−
 
 

The second force (
) is due to the internalelectric field (
 E 
) seen by ions attached to thefilament tip. Fig. 1 provides an approximate pictureof a conducting filament tip as it approaches anelectrode. As the gap between the tip and theelectrode approaches the width of a tunneling gapcharged ions or vacancies will either becomeattached to the filament tip or swept away from thegap region due to electrostatic forces. This willresult in the depletion of ions within the tunnelinggap. As a result of this ion depletion the 2DEGnormally found in the metal side of a Schottky junction will be neutralized. The charge neutrality of the interface allows the use of the method of imagecharges to be used to calculate the internal electricfield in the region between the tip and the electrode.The exact calculation of this internal field wouldrequire knowledge of the geometry of the tip.However, an approximate solution can be
 
June 25, 2011 (ver.3)
determined using the mean of the equilibriumpositions of the collective ions denoted by
 x
f0
. In this
case an application of Gauss’s Law produces
 
=

=

2
 
 
 
 
(
)
0
(
 
(
)
 
0
)
where
 
0
is the vacuum permittivity,
 
is the relativepermittivity,
e
is the unit charge,
 z
is the valence of the ions,
n
 f 
is the number of ions on the filament tip,
 A
 f 
is the cross-sectional area of the filament tip, and
 x
 f 
(t)
is the dynamic tunnel gap.The third force
a
is related to the externallyapplied voltage bias by a proportionality constant
 determined by the tip geometry.
=
−
=

/
 
(
)
It is notable that this force is expected to be 180degrees out of phase with the force seen by the ionsin the Schottky region since as ions are repelledfrom the gap by the applied potential they would beswept away from the tunnel gap which would causethe gap to decrease. On the other if the potential issuch that it attracts ions to the junction the resultantelectrostatic forces would cause the tunnel gap toincrease.Combining (1)-(4) produces:
 
2
 
2
+
 
 
 

+

2
 
 
 
 
(
)
0
(
 
(
)
 
0
)=

(
)
 
(
)

A simplified version of (5) may be developed inthe case where the maximum deflection of the tip
 x
 f 
(t)
is small compared to the equilibrium position
 x
 f0
.

∆
 
=
 
(
)
 
0
∆
 
 
0
 
2
∆
 
2
+
1
 
∆
 

+

2
 
 
 
0
 
 
0
∆
 

 
 
0
As in [1] we arrive at a tractable form in the form of the familiar driven damped harmonic oscillatordifferential equation.
2
2
+2
0

+
02
=
(
)
 III.
 
COUPLING FILAMENT AND ELECTRONIC DYNAMICS
 
The analysis of [1] for dynamic tunneling junctions can now be repeated in the case of thetunneling gap. When the applied voltage to thissystem is zero (
a
(t)
=0) the magnitude of thetunneling energy barrier
 
 B0
(t)
is the product of theelectric field
 E 
0
in the gap and the ion depletionwidth
 x
 f 
(t)
.
0
=
0
 
(
)
 E 
0
may be approximated as
0
=

 
 
 
0
and
 
 B0
(t)
is
0
=

 
 
 
0
 
(
)
At zero voltage some tunneling between the metaland ionic region may occur due to the thermalenergy of the electrons. At equilibrium thetunneling current density
 J 
T0
from the metal to theionic region should balance the tunneling currentdensity from the ionic region to the metal and canbe calculated using the tunneling current equationas referenced in [1]. Note that
 x
 f 
(t)
is time-dependent but is a constant for purposes of theintegration with respect to x.
 
0
=
0

 
8
/2
 
0

 
0
=
0
⁡
 
8
/2
 

 
 
 
0
 
3
(
)

As a positive voltage is applied to the leftelectrode the height of the barrier decreases so that

=
0
 
−
(
)
 
June 25, 2011 (ver.3)
and the tunneling current density is now calculatedas
 

=
0

 
8
/2
 


0
0
=
0
⁡
 
8
/2
 

 
 
 
0
 
3
(
)
 
2
(
)

The net increase of current density from equilibriumis
 
=
 


 
(
)
0

 
(
)
TABLE 1 summarizes the equations for thetunneling filament in addition to the dynamicSchottky and capacitance components discussed in[1]. The total current density
 J 
will of course be aweighted average of the tunneling
 J 
, Schottky
 J 
S
,and capacitance
 J 
current densities in accordancewith
 
=
 
+
 
(
 −
)+
 
 
 
where
 A
is the total electrode area and
 A
is thecross-sectional area of the filament.
c) Frequency Response
 It is expected that capacitance effects dominatethe frequency response of the filamentary mem-resistor fabricated as memory cells. However, forexperimental cases a scanning tunneling microscopemay be used as the electrode on which the filamentgrows so that
 A
 A
. In this case a sinusoidal voltagemay be applied to the dynamic tunneling junction
(
)=
0

(

)
and the steady-state solution to (8) takes the form
∆
 
(
)=
∆
 
0

(

+
0
)

∆
 
0
=

0
 
 
0
 
(
/
 
)
2
+(
2

2
   
0
  
0
)
2
0
=tan
1
(
2

2
   
0
  
0
)
 
Similarly to the situation noted in [1] atresonance
0
= 90 degrees and the dynamicbehavior of the tunneling width is 90 degrees out of phase with the applied voltage. As a result a zero-crossing hysteresis curve will develop in the currentvs. voltage curve. As the input signal frequencyincreases or decreases sufficiently from theresonance frequency the phase shift
0
will go tozero and the hysteresis effect will disappear.IV.
 
CONCLUSIONThis paper has provided a model of resistanceswitching of filamentary memory resistors. It ishoped that the equations summarized in TABLE 1will be of assistance to further development of ReRAM. It is also hoped that they will assist tofurther develop my patented inventions involvingmem-resistor crossbars used in signal processingcircuits and robotic control systems [6].
R
EFERENCES
 
[1]
 
B. Mouttet, “Dynamic Systems Model for Ionic Mem
-Resistors
 based on Harmonic Oscillation,”
arXiv:1103.2190v1, Mar. 2011.
[2]
 
G.Dearnaley, A.M. Stoneham, D.V. Morgan, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys.,
33, 1970.
[3]
 
A.E. Owen, J.M. Robertson, “Electrical Conduction andSwitching in Chalcogenide Glasses,”
IEEE Transactionson Electron Devices, vol. 20, no. 2, Feb. 1973.
[4]
 
B.Mouttet, “The business prospects of memristiveelectronics,” Nanotechnology Law &
Business, Fall 2010.
[5]
 
R.Waser, R.Dittman, G.Staikov, K.Szot,
“Redox
-BasedResistive Switching Memories
 – 
Nanoionic Mechanisms,
Prospects, and Challenges,” Adv.Mater. 21, 2009.
[6]
 
B.Mouttet, “
Programmable crossbar mem-
resistors,”
ver.59, Google Knol, 2011.

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