February 20, 2012 (ver.5)
initial condition). The output equation can then beexpressed as y = Asin(
ω
t)-A
3
sin
2
(
ω
t)cos(
ω
t). The yvs. u hysteresis curve for this case is illustrated inthe bottom figure of page 7 based on a Mathcad plotfor
ω
=1 and A=1.In Example 1 it is evident that an increase in thesignal frequency produces decay in the hysteresiseffect (as is currently assumed to be correct frommemristive systems). In Example 2 an increase inthe signal frequency increases the hysteresis effectin contrast to memristive systems. Example 3 showsan example of frequency independent pinchedhysteresis.The first three examples prove that it is possibleto generate pinched hysteresis using dynamicsystems outside of the realm of memristive systems.The next three examples provide some cases withmore physical meaning.Example 4: Thermal memresistor
=
+
(
0
)
(
−
)
=
2
(
0
)
(5)
In this case
i
(electron current) represents theinput variable,
T
(temperature) is the state variable,and
v
(voltage) is the output variable.This example is based on an idealized physicalsystem in which a voltage
v
is derived based on thesum of an ohmic voltage expressed as the product of resistance
R
and current
i
and an additional voltagebased on the product of the Seebeck coefficient
S
and a temperature gradient
T-T
0
. In this idealizedsystem even in cases wherein there is no appliedcurrent a temperature gradient can induce a voltage.The dynamic equation expresses the rate of variationof the temperature gradient
T-T
0
based on thedifference between the Joule heating (
ki
2
), whichraises the temperature of the system, and thedissipated energy
α
(T-T
0
)
, determining how fast thethermal energy is lost to the environment.It is evident that this example has a form verysimilar to that of Example 1 with the exception thata transient component exists in the solution to thedynamic equation. However, it may be feasible todesign a system such that, given a current signali=I
0
sin
ω
t, the Joule heating in the first term exactlybalances the energy loss from the second term. Inthis case it would be possible to reproduce the sametype of hysteresis curve as in Example 1.It is also evident that this example represents avolatile memory systems but it may be converted toa non-volatile memory system such as phase changememory by including a crystallization rate equationand noting the dependence of the resistance on thecrystallization state.Example 5: Ionic memresistor
=
(
∆
,
)
(
∆
,0)
(
6a
)
∆
(
)
+
1
∆
(
)
+
(
)
∆
(
)=(
ν
)
−
(
)
(
6b
)
A full discussion of the development of thismemresistive system is given in [11]. In this case
v
a
(voltage) is the input variable,
∆
x
d
(variation in thedepletion width) is the state variable,
i
(current) isthe output variable, and
i
d
(
∆
x
d
,v
a
)
is a functiondefining the dependence of the current on thedepletion width and the voltage. For the dynamicequation (6b) the ionic doping level is denoted by
N
d
and the remainder of the terms may be consideredconstants.Different versions of the function
i
d
(
∆
x
d
,v
a
)
maybe formulated depending on a particular thin filminsulator or semiconductor. In general, however, fora sinusoidal voltage input v
a
=V
0
sin(
ω
t) the outputcurrent takes the form
=
(
∆
sin(
ω
t+
φ
0
),
0
sin
)
(
∆
sin(
ω
t+
φ
0
),0)
(
7
)
where
∆
X
d
and
ϕ
0
are constants depending on theion doping level, effective ion mass, relativepermittivity, temperature, and signal frequency (seeequations (39)-(42) of [11]). It is clear frominspection that the i vs. v curve for this system willproduce a zero-crossing hysteresis (with theexception of the case
ϕ
0
= 0 which degenerates thehysteresis).